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his theory. The neglect or rather the misuse of interest is the cause of the failure of the so-called education of our day to produce men and women who are thorough students, eager to extend their attention to every worthy object and to cultivate a love for high and noble principles that make for character. Interest is used by most teachers as a means of instruction, not as an end. It is aroused in order that the pupil may willingly give attention to the lesson and understand it, but does not reach beyond the mastery of the material at hand. How often have we not seen the boy or girl on graduating from the high school relegate his books to an old attic or turn them into cash, reveling in the thought, as he or she expresses it, that "those old books are of no further use, all study is at an end"? Such a line of conduct proves that the pupil's course of instruction has fallen far short of Herbart's aim, it has not aroused the interest, it has not created a desire to extend the knowledge thus far acquired. It has on the contrary merely stimulated the pupil to cover the prescribed curriculum in order to secure the coveted diploma. Such a system produces no effect upon the future career of the pupil, he will neither retain the acquired knowledge nor reach out for more, for he does not love it; nor will he add anything to his moral fibre, for his aims and motives have been allowed to become vitiated. How can this unhappy result be avoided? In the last analysis, by the proper attention to apperception in the process of instruction, for "study depends on the will," and "the will is to be reached by the power of apperceptive interest. ''84

In all justice, therefore, much credit is due to Herbart for his contribution to education, and all serious-minded, well-balanced educators and teachers do not fail to accord him the deserved measure of appreciation. Those who are earnestly striving to reach the true end of education, to make of our boys and girls men and women of worthy tastes and sterling character, will not be discouraged by the labor and responsibility connected with the duties of Herbart's ideal teacher. They will, on the contrary, recognize the wisdom of each step in his process of instruction, and willingly strive to surmount all the difficulties in order to arrive at the goal to which Herbart's system will inevitably lead.



Herbart's theory of apperception, as analyzed in the foregoing chapter, may be seen to comprise within itself a number of fundamental principles of effective teaching. In the process of apperception these are important elements, and in many instances apperception could not be attained if these principles were not employed. First of these we place the element of association and recall, which is the essence or foundation of the principle of apperception. When a new idea is presented to the mind it tends to bring to the focus of consciousness one or more previously acquired ideas which bear some relation to the new. The mind thus associates similar ideas and on subsequent occasions recalls them together. The analogy between this principle and apperception is self-evident.

Another principle of teaching which is closely allied to apperception is the principle of repetition. This principle requires that the new truths taught to the child be not set aside as soon as they have been grasped and understood, that they be not looked upon as completely mastered after one presentation, but on the contrary that the matter be recalled over and over again to the mind of the child, for only by constant repetition can the new truth be thoroughly assimilated. It is not to be understood, however, that this repetition be merely a parrot-like reproduction of the same truth, but a repetition with variation and, where possible, a diversified application of the repeated idea. Or, as Salisbury explains this principle, it "is not mere mechanical repetition, whose purpose is to deepen and keep clear the paths of nervous discharge, but that sort of repetition which brings ideas into the mind in new relations, thus revealing new force and value in the ideas recalled. ''85 In the process of apperception repetition is an essential constituent. In preparing the child's mind for the new truth, Herbart requires that the teacher recall the previously acquired related ideas, either by summarizing them himself, or preferably by drawing the expression of them from the child through adroit questioning.

85 Salisbury, The Theory of Teaching, p. 282. Chicago, 1906.

This is nothing more than a repetition for the purpose of strengthening the truths already learned by the pupil, so that they may serve as a more solid basis for the new idea to be communicated.

Adaptation is another principle which is involved in the process of apperception. The principle of adaptation requires that the matter to be taught be suited to the needs and capacity of the mind of the pupil. It must not be something that is entirely outside the range of his interest or beyond the power of his intellect to understand. The subject must be presented in such a way as to arouse his interest, and with the explanations and illustrations that will enable his understanding to grasp the new truth. The same truth taught to children and to adults would require a different mode of treatment in the two cases, also the same topic presented to an audience consisting of college professors or college students would necessarily be handled differently when the assembly consists of merchants or daylaborers. It may readily be seen that adaptation is an essential requirement of apperception. In order to secure assimilation of the matter to be taught, the teacher is directed by Herbart to see that the pupil possesses the proper apperception mass, or in other words, he must suit the new material to the mass of ideas already possessed by the child, so as to effect the connection of ideas that is necessary for apperception.

Indirectly linked with the notion of apperception is the principle of expression. The importance of this principle of teaching has been tersely stated by many educators: "All consciousness is motor," "no impression without expression," etc. Salisbury gives a more comprehensive definition of this principle in the following: "A sensory stimulus or an idea is incomplete until its motor tendencies have found expression of some sort. This expression clarifies, intensifies, enriches, and makes concrete the original experience, giving it significance and permanence.''86 The pupil should be not merely a passive recipient of the matter taught, for, as is evident to every sensible teacher, it is impossible to determine whether or not a child has assimilated the new material, if he be not called upon to express either by word or action the new knowledge which he has acquired. It must be remembered, however, in connection with this principle as with the law of repetition, that a mere

mechanical reproduction of the statements of the teacher by the pupil will not suffice; this principle calls for self-expression, i. e. the expression of the pupil's own ideas of the subject, in such a way as to give evidence of its assimilation. While the principle of expression is not immediately contained in Herbart's definition of apperception, it is distinctly called for in his "Formal Steps of Method," in which he applies apperception to the process of teaching. At the close of the second steppresentation-as we have pointed out in the preceding chapter of this dissertation, Herbart requires that a review of the matter of the lesson be given by the pupil, which review is not to consist of questions put by the teacher and answered by the pupil, but of a connected and uninterrupted discourse of the pupil himself, for the purpose of showing what he has assimilated of the material presented by the teacher.

Of equal importance with the foregoing principles of teaching is that of sense-activity, which bids the teacher to make constant appeal to the senses of the pupil in imparting new truths, in so far as the subject-matter will permit. It encourages object lessons, especially in the primary grades of school, and urges that wherever possible a subject should be taught objectively. This method of teaching fulfils a double purpose, viz. 1) it is an excellent means of training the senses and developing the child's power of observation, and 2) it gives him a more thorough knowledge of the subject. In order to accomplish this latter purpose, as many of the senses as possible should be exercised upon the object to be studied. The more abundant the percepts experienced by the child the richer will be the concept which he forms, and the more thorough his understanding of the matter of the lesson. Another rendering of this principle of teaching is found in the well-known maxim, "Proceed from the concrete to the abstract." Is not this principle clearly evident in the process of apperception, which requires the teacher to begin the teaching of each new truth by recalling something that is tangible and familiar to the pupil, something which has come within the range of his experience, and to proceed from that to something less familiar and more remote though bearing a close relation to the subject to be taught? Sense-activity is, therefore, a necessary element of apperception, since in many instances it is not possible to connect the new idea with the old ones, and establish the relation of one with the other, without appealing to one or more organs of sense.

From the enumeration of these elements which are involved in the process of apperception, and the list here given is by no means exhaustive, it may readily be seen that apperception is not in itself a single, distinct principle of education, but that it is rather a combination of activities or principles which work simultaneously in bringing about the assimilation of the new material by the pupil. Since an analysis of apperception reveals the presence of these distinct principles of association and recall, repetition, adaptation, expression, sense-activity, etc., are we not justified in asserting the converse of this statement, viz. that wherever we can prove the presence of these elements we there have apperception, if not in all its implications, at least in germ? Wherever, therefore, we find in a teacher's method of instruction the elements noted above, we may justly conclude that his method is in conformity with the principle of apperception and that, other things being equal, the results of his teaching will be a thorough assimilation of the matter taught. In the light of this conclusion, let us examine the work of the Great Educator, whose teachings are set forth in the Gospels, wherein we shall find the idea of apperception in its full import. A careful and thoughtful perusal of these inspired writings will convince the unprejudiced reader beyond the shadow of a doubt, that every principle of value of which our modern pedagogy boasts, is there portrayed and skilfully exemplified in the teachings of our Saviour.

Before, however, examining into the verbal teaching of this Great Master, we shall consider the significance of His life and works from the standpoint of education. Our Divine Saviour, Jesus Christ, was the greatest teacher of all ages and of all countries. During the thirty-three years of His sojourn upon earth, He taught the most sublime doctrines and the most practical lessons of morality that have ever been conceived by the mind of man; and He carried out His work of instruction with such perfection of method, that no teacher of ancient or modern times can be compared with Him from the standard either of skill as a teacher or of the results accomplished by His untiring labors. Though He lived upon earth but a few years and came into direct contact with a comparatively small number of persons, the influence of His marvelous teaching has been felt through every century of the Christian era and has extended

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