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believed, and his whole house. ''105 St. John concludes his account of the multiplication of the loaves with the following statement: "Now those men, when they had seen what a miracle Jesus had done, said: This is of a truth the prophet, that is to come into the world."'106 Also, after relating the miracle of the resurrection of Lazarus, he says: "Many therefore of the Jews, who were come to Mary and Martha, and had seen the things that Jesus did, believed in him.''107

Turning now to the moral lesson inculcated by the miracles of Christ, which we have above stated as consisting in His great compassion for the suffering and His readiness to relieve all pain, provided the sufferer possessed the proper dispositions of soul, we find also abundant evidence of it in the gospel narrative. His loving Heart was always touched at the sight of misery and sorrow, and when solicited was ready to remove the cause of suffering or grief. The first public miracle of the Master was not called forth by even so serious a cause as suffering or sorrow; in this instance the miracle was wrought in order to relieve the embarrassment of the bridegroom when it was found that the supply of wine had run out. Here was truly an example of the magnificent human heart of Christ, who appreciated the situation and used His divine power so that no untoward circumstances might mar the joy and happiness of the newly married couple or of their guests. In the miraculous draught of fishes, the multiplication of the loaves, and other miracles of the like nature, Christ manifested His consideration for the bodily needs of the people. In the cures effected, whether in the case of leprosy, paralysis, blindness, or other disease, He was always actuated by compassion for the victim himself.resympathy for the friends or relatives of the sufferer who interceded for him. In the raising of the dead to life, it was again sympathy for the relatives of the dead persons that moved Christ to restore them to their home circle. As mentioned previously, there was often a spiritual motive also present in Christ's action; this, however, will be considered more fully in the paragraphs that follow.

From what has been said it will readily be seen that the working of miracles was a most effective method of teaching. Those things which appeal to the senses require less faith,

105 Ibid., IV, 53. 106 Ibid., VI, 14.

they work both upon the senses and the understanding, and thus, as it were, force the observer to accept the evidence furnished him by his sight and hearing. This means of teaching was the more necessary to Christ because of the carnal minds of the Jews of that time, who would not readily accept supernatural truths. The use of other means, as oral teaching, require time, attention, and talent, and give in the end only probability. Supernatural truths, which cannot be proved by reason, find in supernatural works their most adequate verification. When a miracle is worked in proof of a truth, there is God; for God alone can work miracles, and what God testifies is infallible truth.108 By the use of miracles also Christ was better able to reach the minds of all, for the multitude with whom He came in contact was made up of persons of varied capabilities. In thus using the means which is best suited to the capacities of His hearers, is not the Great Teacher acting in accordance with the principles of apperception? In making His teaching concrete, supplying evidence to the senses of the multitude, and thereby reaching the understanding and stimulating belief, was not the All-Wise Teacher setting an example for all times of those principles, to which modern philosophers have given the name of apperception?

The third means of teaching used by the Master was the spoken word. The oral teaching will be treated in separate chapters, but we shall here consider the relation existing between Christ's oral teaching and His miracles. In the first place the miracles wrought by Christ were a clear proof of His divinity, hence they gave authority to His oral teaching. The multitude who were forced by the exition of His miraculous power to confess that He was God, who with the blind man were obliged to acknowledge that "from the beginning of the world it hath not been heard that any man hath opened the eyes of one born blind; unless this man were of God he could not do anything,"109 were willing to accept His teaching as infallible. With more reason than the disciples of Pythagoras could the disciples of Christ silence their adversaries in argument by the all-powerful "ipse dixit." The miracles of Christ, therefore, strengthened His oral teaching. They also in many instances proved the truth of the doctrine

108 Raue, Op. cit., p. 197.

which He taught. After curing the man who had been let down through the roof into the midst of the crowd which surrounded Jesus, He said to the witnesses of the miracle: "That you may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the man sick of the palsy), I say to thee, Arise, take up thy bed and go into thy house."'110 Christ also several times wrought miracles on the Sabbath day, in order to prove to the Jews that the law of charity was more important than their law of sabbatical rest, and He answered their objections to His actions by replying: "The Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath. ... What man shall there be among you that hath one sheep; and if the same fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not take hold on it and lift it up? How much better is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do a good deed on the sabbath days.''111

It may be noted further that the miracles of Christ were often accompanied by oral teaching, a fact which shows that the Master's purpose was not only to effect a physical cure but also, as has been stated previously, to further the spiritual welfare of the subject of the miracle as also of the witnesses thereof. In many instances the miracle is accompanied by words of the Saviour regarding the necessity of faith. This fact exemplifies also another statement made in this treatise, viz. that the Divine Master wrought cures upon those who possessed the proper disposition of soul. Now the most important pre-requisite in the recipient of the miracle was faith, hence it may be said that Christ worked miracles only where He found a certain amount of faith; where there was no faith whatever, He saw no pedagogical reason for working miracles. Frequently, therefore, He questioned the sick man to ascertain the extent of his faith; or rather, since He was possessed of this knowledge before receiving the sick man's reply, He proposed the question in order to afford the man an opportunity of professing his belief, and to impress the witnesses by his answer with the necessity of faith. Thus in curing the blind men, Christ first asked them: "Do you believe that I can do this unto you? They say to him, Yea, Lord. Then He touched their eyes saying, According to your faith, be it done unto

110 St. Luke, V, 24.

you.

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When the centurion came to Christ and begged the cure of his servant, he exhibited an admirable degree of faith by saying: "Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst enter under my roof; but only say the word, and my servant shall be healed." Jesus commended his great faith and rewarded it by granting the desired favor. "Amen, I say to you, I have not found so great faith in Israel. Go, and as thou hast believed so be it done to thee. And the servant was healed at the same hour."'113

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Thus in connection with a large number of the miracles, we find among the accompanying words of the Saviour such expressions as, "Thy faith hath made thee whole, "114 "All things are possible to him that believeth,"115 "Thy faith hath made thee safe, go in peace."'116 After calming the tempest in answer to the prayer of His disciples, the Master said to them: "Where is your faith?""117 When St. Peter walked upon the water to meet Jesus, then became frightened and began to sink, the Master said to him: "O thou of little faith, why didst thou doubt?''118 All of these examples show that Our Saviour wrought miracles only upon or at the request of those who possessed a certain amount of faith; while other passages can be cited to prove the obverse of this statement, viz.: that Christ did not work miracles for those who exhibited an utter lack of faith. When He came at one time into His own country and taught in the synagogues, the people marvelled at His wisdom, and said to one another: "Is not this the carpenter's son? Whence therefore hath he all these things?" The evangelist, however, concludes this passage with the following words: "And he wrought not many miracles there because of their unbelief.""'119

It was, however, not only lessons concerning the necessity of faith that the Divine Master taught in connection with His miracles. By His words on these occasions He inculcated the practice of numerous other virtues, a few examples of which will suffice to bear out our general statement. After Christ had effected the cure of the ten lepers, only one of whom

112 Ibid., IX, 28-29.

113 St. Matthew, VIII, 8-13.
114 St. Mark, X, 52.
115 St. Mark, IX, 22.

116 St. Luke, VII, 50.

117 St. Luke, VIII, 25.

118 St. Matthew, XIV, 31.

returned to give thanks for the favor, Our Saviour profited by this occasion to teach the lesson of gratitude. He said to the leper, "Were not ten made clean? and where are the nine? There is no one found to return and give glory to God, but this stranger,"120 for he was a Samaritan. He taught also in connection with this miracle the lesson of obedience to authority, for after cleansing the lepers, He said, "Go, show yourselves to the priest." There was a law among the Jews that the leper who was considered "unclean" was obliged to undergo a purification after his cleansing which often entailed some kind of offering. This was necessary before he might resume his intercourse with other men and be permitted to approach God's sanctuary. When the Scribes and Pharisees brought unto Christ the woman taken in adultery, He miraculously exposed their secret sins by writing with His finger on the ground, then by way of reproach, as well as to teach a lesson of forgiveness, He said to them: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. After healing the ear of Malchus which had been cut off by St. Peter in the Garden of Gethsemani, the Master rebuked Peter and taught a lesson of forgiveness of injuries, and also of resignation to God's will in these words: "Put up thy sword into the scabbard. The chalice which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?''123 He also, in connection with His miracles on many occasions, inculcated the lesson of humility, by forbidding those cured to make known the miracles, thus desiring to avoid the applause and admiration of men. "He charged them strictly that no man should know it.'"124 "And her parents were astonished whom he charged to tell no man what was done. "And he saith to him: See thou tell no one, but go, shew thyself to the high-priest, and offer for thy cleansing the things that Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. ''126

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In many instances the miracles wrought by the Divine Teacher served as a means of illustration for His oral teaching, i. e. He worked a miracle to exemplify His teaching.

120 St. Luke, XVII, 17-18.
121 St. Luke, XVII, 14.
122 St. John, VIII, 6-7.
123 Ibid., XVIII, 11.
124 St. Mark, V. 48.
125 St. Luke, VIII, 56.

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