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places for them ;178 they have in Him a certain way to heaven, for union with Christ is an assured preparation for eternal life; 179 with His departure His work will not cease, for in His power they will be enabled to do greater works;180 He will send them another intercessor;181 His separation from them will be only for a short time;182 the Holy Spirit will enable them to understand His doctrine; 183 and His peace will be with them during His absence.184 Thus did the loving Master seek to allay their fears, and after this enumeration of the advantages of His departure, He repeated His soothing words, "Let not your heart be troubled, nor let it be afraid." He had been interrupted by questions from Thomas, Philip, and Judas and had dispelled each one's difficulty by an appropriate answer before resuming the trend of his discourse. This method of procedure also exhibits the Herbartian principle which requires that the matter taught be presented bit by bit, and that each truth be clearly understood by the pupil before the next is introduced.

The theme or the main scope of the whole discourse is then stated in the words: "I am the true vine, and My Father is the husbandman."'185 From this statement, as from a tiny seed whence issues the essence that subsequently develops into a vast forest, proceeds the marvellous wealth of doctrine which has come down through the ages in all its pristine strength and grandeur, and has spread its all-embracing influence over the entire world. The Divine Master casts His teaching in the form of an allegory, that effective concrete setting which serves as a frame-work for His sublime truths, and which after His example has been used by countless numbers of teachers including Herbart himself. Under the figures of the vine, the husbandman, the branches, and the fruit, He portrays to His disciples the relations existing between Himself, His Father in heaven, and themselves, who have been chosen to continue His work of bringing souls to the knowledge and practice of His doctrine. In His picture of the dependence of the branches upon the vine, they readily recognize the close union that

178 Ibid.. XIV., 2-3.

179 St. John. XIV. 4-11. 180 Ibid., XIV, 12-14. 181 Ibid., XIV, 15-17. 182 Ibid., XIV, 18-24. 183 Ibid., XIV, 25-26. 184 Ibid., XIV, 27-28.

must exist between themselves and their Head, whence only they can receive the strength and unction necessary for the successful accomplishment of their allotted task.186 In His exhortations to mutual love they see the necessary interdependence of the branches, for all must unite to promote the entire growth; only by the co-operation of all the workers can the desired result be attained. 187 The fruit of the union between the vine and the branches, which is the sanctification of souls, can scarcely be gleaned without some difficulty, hence the Divine Teacher warns His disciples of the obstacles wi which they will meet in the exercise of their ministry. They will have to brave hatred and persecution, because of their attachment to their Master, because they must be like to Him, and because they must teach His doctrine.188 He bids them have courage under persecution, and exhorts them most earnestly to maintain the proper attitude in their relations with the world,189 for a lack of firmness or the least approach to a compromise would be fatal to the noble cause which they represent.

Having thus portrayed to His Apostles, by means of an allegory, a vivid picture of the relations that must exist between His Father in heaven-the husbandman, Himselfthe vine, and His disciples-the branches, the Divine Teacher returns to His specific theme, i. e., His farewell to those whom He has been preparing to carry on His work. Realizing fully the capacity of the minds and hearts of His hearers, He skilfully refrains from imposing upon them a burden, useless at this time and which they are as yet unable to bear. "I have yet many things to say to you: but you cannot bear them now.''190 The large, fundamental truths were sufficient for them at the time, the details concerning the establishment and organization of His Church would be furnished them at a later date. It is not necessarily implied by these words that the Apostles were not able to comprehend more, but the wise Teacher knew how to divide the material which He wished to present, in order that time be given for the proper assimilation of these important doctrines and precepts.191 His words of

186 Ibid., XV, 1-11.

187 Ibid., XV, 12-17.

188 Calmes, L'Evangile selon St. Jean, p. 401.

189 St. John, XV, 18-XVI, 11.

191 Hengstenberg, Op. cit., vol. II, p. 284.

farewell are accompanied by another promise of the Holy Spirit who is to descend upon them and teach them all truth. The mission of this Holy Spirit is to continue the teaching begun by the Master Himself, rather to explain and make clear to their understanding the truths already presented than to add new matter to the body of doctrine previously given. The loving Master, intensely solicitous for the future welfare of His disciples, assures them that they can depend implicitly upon the teaching to be imparted by the Spirit of truth who "shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear," (i. e., by divine inspiration), "he shall speak."192 With tender words He consoles them in their sorrow, occasioned by His departure, and promises that they will again see Him after "a little while" when their "sorrow shall be turned into joy. ''193 Another concrete illustration is then used to assure His hearers that deepest sorrow is often followed by highest joy, and that such will be their experience upon His return.194

This discourse is followed by a prayer in which the Divine Master exhibits the great love and solicitude of His Sacred Heart for those who have been entrusted to His care by His Heavenly Father. Before quitting this world, He gives to His Father an account of His mission, of the sheep committed to His care, only one of whom has perished; and He asks the Father to preserve them in unity, to strengthen them against temptation, and to confirm them in truth.105 Being a prudent Teacher He does not desire that all difficulties be removed from their pathway or that they themselves be transferred to a region beyond the reach of danger, for He it was Who inspired St. James to write, "Blessed is the man that endureth temptation; for when he hath been proved, he shall receive the crown of life, which God hath promised to them that love Him",196 and also St. Luke to say that "through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God."197 He asks His Heavenly Father, as He had taught them to ask for themselves in the Pater Noster, that they might be kept from evil. The prayer concludes with the petition that His disciples may one day all be reunited with Him in His heavenly kingdom.

192 St. John, XVI, 13. 193 St. John, XVI, 17-20. 194 St. John, XVI, 21-22.

195 St. John, XVII, 12-21.

196 St. James, The Catholic Epistle, I, 12.

In this prayer, as also in the entire discourse which precedes it, we have therefore found exemplified the essential elements in the Herbartian principle of apperception. We have pointed them out step by step, and noted with what skill the Divine Master prepared the minds of His hearers for the new idea or new lesson to be conveyed, carefully linked the new matter with the ideas already in the mind, and presented the material in the proper order and quantity for its thorough assimilation. This was noted likewise in the Sermon on the Mount, and in the discourse of Christ delivered after the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves. A sufficient number of citations have been made to warrant the statement that the teaching of Christ manifests in every stage of its process a perfect agreement with the requirements of apperception, and that no other teacher, including Herbart himself, has so skilfully exemplified the principle as the Teacher of Teachers, whose incomparable doctrines will be heard throughout the world to the end of time.

CHAPTER V

APPERCEPTION IN THE TEACHING OF CHRIST

3. HIS REFERENCES TO THE OLD TESTAMENT

Since most of the discourses of the Divine Teacher were addressed to the Jewish people, it is not surprising to find in them frequent references to the pages of the Old Testament. That people, favored by God from earliest times, chosen by Him in the days of Abraham as the race that was to live under His particular guidance and from which His Divine Son was to be born in time, was naturally the first to which the Saviour revealed Himself and set forth the truths of the religion He had come to promulgate. The Old Testament was to the Jews of the time of Christ the Book of Books, the Book par excellence. They cherished it as a sacred work, written by the human authors under the inspiration of God, hence bearing for them a message from the Ruler of heaven and earth. Besides containing the history of their ancestors back through remote ages, it was held in great veneration as their book of laws embracing regulations that pertained to all the circumstances of their lives, and from which they could draw counsel in doubt, consolation in sorrows and trials, and an assurance of redemption through the merits of the promised Messiah.

By reason, therefore, of their love for the Old Testament and their familiarity with its contents, Christ in His discourses to the Jewish people used this sacred text as a common meeting ground, as a basis upon which He established the new truths which He wished to communicate to them. A quotation from its pages was sufficient to bring to the foreground of consciousness in the minds of His hearers the desired apperception mass to which the new idea might readily attach itself. Hence a reference to the Old Testament served as a preparation of the mind for the lesson or the truth to be expounded. A further reason for our Saviour's use of the Old Testament might be found in His desire to establish in the minds of His hearers the connection existing between the Old Law which was about to be abrogated, and the New Law which it was His mission to proclaim. The ordinances of the

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