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vers persons in the House of Commons, for that they were attainted, and thereby not legal nor habilitate to serve in parliament, being disabled in the highest degree, and that it should be a great incongruity to have them to make laws who themselves were not inlawed. The truth was, that divers of those which had in the time of King Richard been strongest, and most declared for the king's party, were returned knights and burgesses for the parliament, whether by care or recommendation from the state, or the voluntary inclination of the people; many of which had been by Richard the Third attainted by outlawries or otherwise. The king was somewhat troubled with this; for though it had a grave and specious show, yet it reflected upon his party. But wisely not showing himself at all moved therewith, he would not understand it but as a case in law, and wished the judges to be advised thereupon; who for that purpose were forthwith assembled in the Exchequer Chamber, which is the council chamber of the judges, and upon deliberation they gave a grave and safe opinion and advice, mixed with law and convenience; which was, that the knights and burgesses attainted by the course of law should forbear to come into the house till a law were passed for the reversal of their attainders.

tempts against him, so as they submitted themselves to his mercy by a day, and took the oath of allegiance and fidelity to him. Whereupon many came out of sanctuary, and many more came out of fear, no less guilty than those that had taken sanctuary.

As for money or treasure, the king thought it not seasonable or fit to demand any of his subjects at this parliament; both because he had received satisfaction from them in matters of so great importance, and because he could not remunerate them with any general pardon, being prevented therein by the coronation-pardon passed immediately before: but chiefly, for that it was in every man's eye, what great forfeitures and confiscations he had at that present to help himself, whereby those casualties of the crown might in reason spare the purses of the subject, especially in a time when he was in peace with all his neighbours. Some few laws passed at that parliament almost for form's sake; amongst which there was one to reduce aliens being made denizens, to pay strangers custom; and another to draw to himself the seizures and compositions of Italians' goods, for not employment, being points of profit to his coffers, whereof from the very beginning he was not forgetful; and had been more happy at the It was at that time incidently moved amongst | latter end, if his early providence, which kept the judges in their consultation, what should be him from all necessity of exacting upon his peodone for the king himself, who likewise was at-ple, could likewise have attempered his nature tainted? But it was with unanimous consent resolved, "That the crown takes away all defects and stops in blood: and that from the time the king did assume the crown, the fountain was cleared, and all attainders and corruption of blood discharged." But nevertheless, for honour's sake, it was ordained by parliament, that all records, wherein there was any memory or mention of the king's attainder, should be defaced, cancelled, and taken off the file.

But on the part of the king's enemies there were by parliament attainted, the late Duke of Gloucester, calling himself Richard the Third; the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Surrey, Viscount Lovel, the Lord Ferrers, the Lord Zouch, Richard Ratcliffe, William Catesby, and many others of degree and quality. In which bills of attainders, nevertheless, there were contained many just and temperate clauses, savings, and provisoes, well showing and fore-tokening the wisdom, stay, and moderation of the king's spirit of government. And for the pardon of the rest that had stood against the king, the king, upon a second advice, thought it not fit it should pass by parliament, the better, being matter of grace, to impropriate the thanks to himself, using only the opportunity of a parliament time, the better to disperse it into the veins of the kingdom. Therefore, during the parliament, he published his royal proclamation, offering pardon and grace of restitution to all such as had taken arms, or been participant of any at

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therein. He added, during parliament, to his former creations, the ennoblement or advancement in nobility of a few others; the Lord Chandos of Britain was made Earl of Bath; Sir Giles Daubeney was made Lord Daubeney; and Sir Robert Willoughby, Lord Brook.

The king did also with great nobleness and bounty, which virtues at that time had their turns in his nature, restore Edward Stafford, eldest son to Henry, Duke of Buckingham, attainted in the time of King Richard, not only to his dignities, but to his fortunes and possessions, which were great; to which he was moved also by a kind of gratitude, for that the duke was the man that moved the first stone against the tyranny of King Richard, and indeed made the king a bridge to the crown upon his own ruins. Thus the parliament brake up.

The parliament being dissolved, the king sent forthwith money to redeem the Marquis Dorset and Sir John Bourchier, whom he had left as his pledges at Paris, for money which he had borrowed when he made his expedition for England. And thereupon he took a fit occasion to send the Lord Treasurer and Master Bray, whom he used as counsellor, to the Lord Mayor of London, requiring of the city a prest of six thousand marks; but after many parleys he could obtain but two thousand pounds; which, nevertheless the king took in good part, as men use to do that practise to borrow money when they have no need. About

this time, the king called unto his privy council | ment the king despised and continued his journey John Morton and Richard Fox, the one Bishop of to York. At York there came fresh and more

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certain advertisement, that the Lord Lovel was at hand with a great power of men, and that the Staffords were in arms in Worcestershire, and had made their approaches to the city of Worcester to assail it. The king, as a prince of great and profound judgment, was not much moved with it; for that he thought it was but a rag or remnant of Bosworth-field, and had nothing in it of the main party of the house of York. But he was more doubtful of the raising of forces to resist the rebels, than of the resistance itself; for that he was in a core of people whose affections

Ely, the other Bishop of Exeter; vigilant men and secret, and such as kept watch with him almost upon all men else. They had been both versed in his affairs before he came to the crown, and were partakers of his adverse fortune. This Morton soon after, upon the death of Bourchier, he made Archbishop of Canterbury. And for Fox, he made him lord keeper of his privy seal, and afterwards advanced him by degrees, from Exeter to Bath and Wells, thence to Durham, and last to Winchester. For although the king loved to employ and advance bishops, because, having rich bishopricks, they carried their reward he suspected. But the action enduring no delay, upon themselves; yet he did use to raise them he did speedily levy and send against the Lord by steps, that he might not lose the profit of the Lovel to the number of three thousand men, ill first fruits, which by that course of gradation was armed, but well assured, being taken some few multiplied. out of his own train, and the rest out of the At last, upon the eighteenth of January, was tenants and followers of such as were safe to be solemnized the so long expected and so much de- trusted, under the conduct of the Duke of Bedsired marriage between the king and Lady Eliza- ford. And as his manner was to send his parbeth; which day of marriage was celebrated with dons rather before the sword than after, he gave greater triumph and demonstrations, especially | commission to the duke to proclaim pardon to alı on the people's part, of joy and gladness, than that would come in; which the duke, upon his the days either of his entry or coronation, which approach to the Lord Lovel's camp, did perform. the king rather noted than liked. And it is true, And it fell out as the king expected; the heralds that all his lifetime, while the Lady Elizabeth were the great ordnance. For the Lord Lovel, lived with him, for she died before him, he show-upon proclamation of pardon, mistrusting his ed himself no very indulgent husband towards her, though she was beautiful, gentle, and fruitful. But his aversion towards the house of York was so predominant in him, as it found place not only in his wars and councils, but in his chamber and bed.

Towards the middle of the spring, the king, full of confidence and assurance, as a prince that had been victorious in battle, and had prevailed with his parliament in all that he had desired, and had the ring of acclamations fresh in his ears, thought the rest of his reign should be but play, and the enjoying of a kingdom: yet, as a wise and watchful king, he would not neglect any thing for his safety, thinking, nevertheless, to perform all things now rather as an exercise than as a labour. So he being truly informed that the northern parts were not only affectionate to the house of York, but particularly had been devoted to King Richard the Third, thought it would be a summer well spent to visit those parts, and by his presence and application of himself to reclaim and rectify those humours. But the king, in his account of peace and calms, did much overcast his fortunes, which proved for many years together, full of broken seas, tides, and tempests. For he was no sooner come to Lincoln, where he kept his Easter, but he received news that the Lord Lovel, Humphrey Stafford, and Thomas Stafford, who had formerly taken sanctuary at Colchester, were departed out of sanctuary, but to what place no man could tell which advertise


men, fled into Lancashire, and lurking for a time with Sir Thomas Broughton, after sailed over into Flanders to the Lady Margaret; and his men, forsaken of their captain, did presently submit themselves to the duke. The Staffords, likewise, and their forces, hearing what had happened to the Lord Lovel, in whose success their chief trust was, despaired and dispersed. The two brothers taking sanctuary at Colnham, a village near Abingdon; which place, upon view of their privilege in the king's bench, being judged no sufficient sanctuary for traitors, Humphrey was executed at Tyburn; and Thomas, as being led by his elder brother, was pardoned. So this rebellion proved but a blast, and the king, having by this journey purged a little the dregs and leaven of the northern people, that were before in no good affection towards him, returned to London.

In September following, the queen was delivered of her first son, whom the king, in honour of the British race, of which himself was, named Arthur, according to the name of that ancient worthy king of the Britons, in whose acts there is truth enough to make him famous, besides that which is fabulous. The child was strong and able, though he was born in the eighth month, which the physicians do prejudge.

There followed this year, being the second of the king's reign, a strange accident of state whereof the relations which we have are so naked, as they leave it scarce credible; not for the nature of it, for it hath fallen out often, but for the man

ner and circumstances of it, especially in the be- such an abject fellow to enterprise so great a matginnings. Therefore we shall make our judgment ter; for high conceits do sometimes come streamupon the things themselves, as they give lighting into the minds and imaginations of base perone to another, and as we can dig truth out of the mine. The king was green in his estate; and, contrary to his own opinion and desert both, was not without much hatred throughout the realm. The root of all was the discountenancing of the house of York, which the general body of the realm still affected. This did alienate the hearts of the subjects from him daily more and more, especially when they saw, that after his marriage, and after a son born, the king did nevertheless not so much as proceed to the coronation of the queen, not vouchsafing her the honour of a matrimonial crown; for the coronation of her was not till almost two years after, when danger had taught him what to do. But much more when it was spread abroad, whether by error, or the cunning of malcontents, that the king had a purpose to put to death Edward Plantagenet closely in the Tower: whose case was so nearly paralleled with that of Edward the Fourth's children, in respect of the blood, like age, and the very place of the Tower, as it did refresh and reflect upon the king a most odious resemblance, as if he would be another King Richard. And all this time it was still whispered everywhere, that at least one of the children of Edward the Fourth was living: which bruit was cunningly fomented by such as desired innovation. Neither was the king's nature and customs greatly fit to disperse these mists, but contrariwise, he had a fashion rather to create doubts than assurance. Thus was fuel prepared for the spark: the spark, that afterwards kindled such a fire and combustion, was at first contemptible.

sons, especially when they are drunk with news and talk of the people. But here is that which hath no appearance: that this priest, being utterly unacquainted with the true person, according tɔ whose pattern he should shape his counterfeit, should think it possible for him to instruct his player, either in gesture and fashions, or in recounting past matters of his life and education; or in fit answers to questions, or the like, any ways to come near the resemblance of him whom he was to represent. For this lad was not to personate one that had been long before taken out of his cradle, or conveyed away in his infancy, known to few; but a youth, that till the age almost of ten years had been brought up in a court where infinite eyes had been upon him. For King Edward, touched with remorse of his brother the Duke of Clarence's death, would not, indeed, restore his son, of whom we speak, to be Duke of Clarence, but yet created him Earl of Warwick, reviving his honour on the mother's side; and used him honourably during his time, though Richard the Third afterwards confined him. So that it cannot be, but that some great person that knew particularly and familiarly Edward Plantagenet, had a hand in the business, from whom the priest might take his aim. That which is most probable, out of the precedent and subsequent acts is, that it was the queen-dowager from whom this action had the principal source and motion. For certain it is, she was a busy negotiating woman, and in her withdrawing-chamber had the fortunate conspiracy for the king against King Richard the Third been hatched; which the

There was a subtile priest called Richard Si-king knew, and remembered perhaps but too well; mon,* that lived in Oxford, and had to his pupil a baker's son, named Lambert Simnell, of the age of some fifteen years, a comely youth, and well favoured, not without some extraordinary dignity and grace of aspect. It came into this priest's fancy, hearing what men talked, and in hope to raise himself to some great bishoprick, to cause this lad to counterfeit and personate the second son of Edward the Fourth, supposed to be murdered; and afterward, for he changed his intention in the manage, the Lord Edward Plantagenet, then prisoner in the Tower, and accordingly to frame him and instruct him in the part he was to play. This This is that which, as was touched before, seemeth scarcely credible; not that a false person should be assumed to gain a kingdom, for it hath been seen in ancient and late times; nor that it should come into the mind of

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and was at this time extremely discontent with the king, thinking her daughter, as the king handled the matter, not advanced but depressed: and none could hold the book so well to prompt and instruct this stage-play as she could. Neverthe less it was not her meaning, nor no more was it the meaning of any of the better and sager sort that favoured this enterprise, and knew the secret, that this disguised idol should possess the crown; but at his peril to make way to the overthrow of the king; and that done they had their several hopes and ways. That which doth chiefly fortify this conjecture is, that as soon as the matter brake forth in any strength, it was one of the king's first acts to cloister the queen-dowager in the nunnery of Bermondsey, and to take away all her lands and estate; and this by a close council, without any legal proceeding, upon far-fetched pretences that she had delivered her two daughters out of sanctuary to King Richard, contrary to promise. Which proceeding being even at that time taxed for rigorous and undue, both in matter and manner, makes it very probable there was some greater

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ter matter against her, which the king, upon rea- | Plantagenet. The earl presently communicated son of policy, and to avoid envy, would not pub- the matter with some of the nobles, and others lish. It is likewise no small argument that there there, at the first secretly; but finding them of was some secret in it, and some suppressing of like affection to himself, he suffered it of purpose examinations, for that the priest Simon himself, to vent and pass abroad; because they thought it after he was taken, was never brought to execu- not safe to resolve, till they had a taste of the pection; no, not so much as to public trial, as many ple's inclination. But if the great ones were in clergymen were upon less treasons, but was only forwardness, the people were in fury, entertainshut up close in a dungeon. Add to this, that ing this airy body or phantasm with incredible after the Earl of Lincoln, a principal person of the affection; partly, out of their great devotion to the house of York, was slain in Stockfield, the king house of York; partly, out of a proud humour in opened himself to some of his council, that he was the nation, to give a king to the realm of Engsorry for the earl's death, because by him, he said, land. Neither did the party, in this heat of afhe might have known the bottom of his danger. fection, much trouble themselves with the attainBut to return to the narration itself: Simon did der of George, Duke of Clarence; having newly first instruct his scholar for the part of Richard, learned, by the king's example, that attainders do Duke of York, second son to King Edward the not interrupt the conveying of title to the crown. Fourth; and this was at such time as it was voiced And as for the daughters of King Edward the that the king purposed to put to death Edward Fourth, they thought King Richard had said Plantagenet, prisoner in the Tower, whereat there enough for them; and took them to be but as of was great murmur. But hearing soon after a ge- the king's party, because they were in his power neral bruit that Plantagenet had escaped out of the and at his disposing. So that with marvellous Tower, and thereby finding him so much beloved consent and applause, this counterfeit Plantageamongst the people, and such rejoicing at his es- net was brought with great solemnity to the cascape, the cunning priest changed his copy, and tle of Dublin, and there saluted, served, and hochose now Plantagenet to be the subject his pupil noured as king; the boy becoming it well, and should personate, because he was more in the doing nothing that did bewray the baseness of present speech and votes of the people; and it his condition. And within a few days after he pieced better, and followed more close and hand- was proclaimed king, in Dublin, by the name of somely, upon the bruit of Plantagenet's escape. | But yet doubting that there would be too near looking, and too much perspective into his dis- The king was much moved with this unexpect~ guise, if he should show it here in England; he ed accident when it came to his ears, both bethought good, after the manner of scenes in stage cause it struck upon that string which ever he plays and masks, to show it afar off; and there- most feared, as also because it was stirred in such fore sailed with his scholar into Ireland, where a place where he could not with safety transfer the affection to the house of York was most in his own person to suppress it. For partly through height. The king had been a little improvident | natural valour, and partly through a universal in the matters of Ireland, and had not removed officers and counsellors, and put in their places, or at least intermingled, persons of whom he stood assured, as he should have done, since he knew the strong bent of that country towards the house of York; and that it was a ticklish and unsettled state, more easy to receive distempers and mutations than England was. But trusting to the reputation of his victories and successes in England, he thought he should have time enough to extend his cares afterwards to that second kingdom.

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King Edward the Sixth; there being not a sword drawn in King Henry's quarrel.

suspicion, not knowing whom to trust, he was ever ready to wait upon all his acheivements in person. The king therefore first called his council together at the Charter-house at Shine; which council was held with great secrecy, but the open decrees thereof, which presently came abroad, were three.

The first was, that the queen-dowager, for that she, contrary to her pact and agreement with those that had concluded with her concerning the marriage of her daughter Elizabeth with King Henry, had nevertheless delivered her daughters out of sanctuary into King Richard's hands, should be cloistered in the nunnery of Bermondesy, and forfeit all her lands and goods.

Wherefore through this neglect, upon the coming of Simon with his pretended Plantagenet into Ireland, all things were prepared for revolt and sedition, almost as if they had been set and plotted beforehand. Simon's first address was to the Lord The next was, that Edward Plantagenet, then Thomas Fitz-Gerard, Earl of Kildare, and deputy close prisoner in the Tower, should be, in the of Ireland; before whose eyes he did cast such a most public and notorious manner that could be mist, by his own insinuation, and by the carriage devised, showed unto the people: in part to dis of his youth, that expressed a natural princely be-charge the king of the envy of that opinion and haviour, as joined perhaps with some inward vapours of ambition and affection in the earl's own mind, left him fully possessed that it was the true VOL. I.-41

bruit, how he had been put to death privily in the Tower; but chiefly to make the people see the levity and imposture of the proceedings of Ire

land, and that their Plantagenet was indeed but a loquy, which, nevertheless, besides the reason of puppet or a counterfeit. state, was somewhat sweetened to him by a great confiscation.

The general pardon likewise near the same time came forth; and the king therewithal omitSheted no diligence, in giving strait order for the keepfairing of the ports, that fugitives, malecontents, or suspected persons, might not pass over into Ireland and Flanders.

The third was, that there should be again proclaimed a general pardon to all that would reveal About this time also, Edward Plantagenet was their offences, and submit themselves by a day. upon a Sunday brought throughout all the princiAnd that this pardon should be conceived in so pal streets of London, to be seen of the people. ample and liberal a manner, as no high treason, And having passed the view of the streets, was no not against the king's own person, should be conducted to Paul's Church in solemn procession, excepted. Which though it might seem strange, where great store of people were assembled. And yet was it not so to a wise king, that knew his it was provided also in good fashion, that divers greatest dangers were not from the least treasons, of the nobility, and others of quality, especially but from the greatest. These resolutions of the of those that the king most suspected, and knew king and his council were immediately put in ex- the person of Plantagenet best, had communicaecution. And first, the queen-dowager was put tion with the young gentleman by the way, and into the monastery of Bermondsey, and all her es- entertained him with speech and discourse; which tates seized into the king's hands: whereat there did in effect mar the pageant in Ireland with the was much wondering; that a weak woman, for subjects here, at least with so many, as out of error, the yielding to the menaces and promises of a ty- and not out of malice, might be misled. Neverrant, after such a distance of time, wherein the theless in Ireland, where it was too late to go king had showed no displeasure nor alteration, back, it wrought little or no effect. But contrabut much more after so happy a marriage between riwise, they turned the imposture upon the king; the king and her daughter, blessed with issue and gave out, that the king, to defeat the true inmale, should, upon a sudden mutability or disclo- heritor, and to mock the world, and blind the eyes sure of the king's mind, be so severely handled. of simple men, had tricked up a boy in the likeThis lady was amongst the examples of great ness of Edward Plantagenet, and showed him to variety of fortune. She had first, from a distress-the people; not sparing to profane the ceremony ed suitor, and desolate widow, been taken to the of a procession, the more to countenance the marriage bed of a bachelor king, the goodliest fable. personage of his time; and even in his reign she had endured a strange eclipse by the king's flight, and temporary depriving from the crown. was also very happy, in that she had by him issue; and continued his nuptial love, helping herself by some obsequious bearing and dissembling of his pleasures, to the very end. She was much affectionate to her own kindred, even unto faction; which did stir great envy in the lords of the king's side, who counted her blood a dispa-importance. For England, they won to their party ragement to be mingled with the king's. With John, Earl of Lincoln, son of John de la Pole, which lords of the king's blood joined also the Duke of Suffolk, and of Elizabeth, King Edward king's favourite, the Lord Hastings; who, not- the Fourth's eldest sister. This earl was a man withstanding the king's great affection to him, of great wit and courage, and had his thoughts was thought at times, through her malice and highly raised by hopes and expectations for a spleen, not to be out of danger of falling. After time; for Richard the Third had a resolution, her husband's death she was matter of tragedy, out of his hatred to both his brethren, King Edhaving lived to see her brother beheaded, and her ward and the Duke of Clarence, and their lines, two sons deposed from the crown, bastarded in having had his hand in both their bloods, to distheir blood, and cruelly murdered. All this able their issues upon false and incompetent prewhile, nevertheless, she enjoyed her liberty, state, texts; the one of attainder, the other of illegitimaand fortunes: but afterwards again, upon the rise tion: and 'to design the gentleman, in case himof the wheel, when she had a king to her son-in-self should die without children, for inheritor of law, and was made grandmother to a grandchild the crown. Neither was this unknown to the of the best sex: yet was she, upon dark and un- king, who had secretly an eye upon him. But known reasons, and no less strange pretences, pre- the king, having tasted of the envy of the people cipitated and banished the world into a nunnery; for his imprisonment of Edward Plantagenet, was where it was almost thought dangerous to visit doubtful to heap up any more distastes of that kind, her, or see her; and where not long after she ended by the imprisonment of De la Pole also; the rather her life but was by the king's commandment thinking it policy to conserve him as a co-rival buried with the king her husband, at Windsor. unto the other. The Earl of Lincoln was induced She was foundress of Queen's College, in Cam- to participate with the action of Ireland, not bridge, For this act the king sustained great ob- lightly upon the strength of the proceedings there

Meanwhile the rebels in Ireland had sent privy messengers both into England and into Flanders, who in both places had wrought effects of no small

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