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sixty years of age, and if, after the vexations | that tower, that he did acknowledge to have reand labours of a professional and political life, covered that kingdom by the help of the Althe varieties and sprightliness of youthful ima- mighty; nor would he stir from his camp till he gination are not to be found, yet the peculiar pro- had seen a little army of martyrs, to the number perties of his mind may easily be traced, and the of seven hundred and more Christians, that had stateliness of the edifice be seen in the magnifi- lived in bonds and servitude, as slaves to the Moors, pass before his eyes, singing a psalm for cence of the ruins. their redemption."
His vigilance in recording every fact tending to alleviate misery, or to promote happiness, is noticed by Bishop Sprat, in his History of the Royal Society, where he says, “I shall instance in the sweating sickness. The medicine for it was almost infallible: but, before that could be generally published, it had almost dispeopled whole towns. If the same disease should have `returned, it might have been again as destructive, had not the Lord Bacon taken care to set down the particular course of physic for it in his History of Henry the Seventh, and so put it beyond the possibility of any private man's invading it."
One of his maxims of government for the enlargement of the bounds of the empire is to be found in his comment upon the ordinance, stated in the treatise “De Augmentis.” “Let states and kingdoms that aim at greatness by all means take heed how the nobility, and grandees, and those which we call gentlemen, multiply too fast; for that makes the common subject grow to be a peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and in effect nothing else but the nobleman's bondslaves and labourers. Even as you may see in coppice-wood, if you leave your studdles too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes: so in a country, if the nobility be too many, the commons will be base and heartless, and you will bring it to that, that not the hundredth poll will be fit for a helmet, especially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of an army; and so there will be great population, and little strength."
His love of familiar illustration is to be found in various parts of the history: as when speaking of the commotion by the Cornish men, on behalf of the impostor Perkin Warbeck: "The king judged it his best and surest way to keep his strength together in the seat and centre of his kingdom; according to the ancient Indian emblem, in such a swelling season, to hold the hand upon the middle of the bladder, that no side might rise."
The work was published in folio, in 1622: and is dedicated to Prince Charles. Copies were presented to the king, to Buckingham, to the Queen of Bohemia, and to the lord keeper.
It had scarcely been published when he felt and expressed anxiety that it should be translated into Latin, "as these modern languages will, at one time or other, play the bankrupts with books; and, since I have lost much time with this age, I would be glad, as God shall give me leave, to recover it with posterity:" a wish which was more than gratified, as it was published, not only in various editions, in England, but was soon translated into French and into Latin.
Such was the nature of his literary occupations in the first year after his retirement, during which he corresponded with different learned foreigners upon his works; and great zeal having been shown for his majesty's service, he composed a treatise entitled, "An Advertisement touching a Holy War," which he inscribed to the Bishop of Winchester.
In the beginning of this year, (1623,) a vacancy occurred in the Provostship of Eton college, where, in earlier years, he had passed some days with Sir Henry Savile, pleasant to himself and profitable to society. His love of knowledge again manifested itself.
Having, in the spirit of his father, unfortunately engaged, in his youth, in active life, he now, in the spirit of his grandfather, the learned and contemplative Sir Anthony Cooke, who took more pleasure to breed up statesmen than to be one, offered himself to succeed the provost: as a fit occupation for him in the spent hour-glass of his life, and a retreat near London to a place of study.
The objection which would, of course, be made from what we, in our importance, look down upon as beneath his dignity, he had many years before anticipated in the Advancement of Learning, when investigating the objections to learning from the errors of learned men, from their fortunes; their manners; and the meanness of their
And his kind nature and holy feeling appear in his account of the conquest of Granada. "Somewhat about this time came letters from Ferdinan-employments: upon which he says, "As for do and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, signifying the final conquest of Granada from the Moors; but the king would not by any means in person enter the city until he had first aloof seen the cross set up upon the great tower of Granada, whereby it became Christian ground; and, before he would enter, he did homage to God above, pronouncing by a herald from the height of
meanness of employment, that which is most traduced to contempt is, that the government of youth is commonly allotted to them; which age, because it is the age of least authority, it is transferred to the disesteeming of those employments wherein youth is conversant, and which are conversant about youth. But how unjust this traducement is, if you will reduce things from
popularity of opinion to measure of reason, may | had hitherto only hope of it, and hope deferred; appear in that, we see men are more curious what and he was desirous to know the event of the they put into a new vessel than into a vessel season- matter, and to be freed, one way or other, from ed; and what mould they lay about a young plant, the suspense of his thoughts. His friend returnthan about a plant corroborate; so as the weakest ing, told him plainly that he must thenceforth terms and times of all things used to have the best despair of that grant, how much soever his forapplications and helps; and, therefore, the ancient tunes needed it. "Be it so," said his lordship; wisdom of the best times did always make a just and then he dismissed his friend very cheerfully, complaint, that states were too busy with their with thankful acknowledgments of his service. laws, and too negligent in point of education: His friend being gone, he came straightway to which excellent part of ancient discipline hath Dr. Rawley, and said thus to him, “ Well, sir, been in some sort revived of late times, by the yon business won't go on, let us go on with this, colleges of the Jesuits; of whom, although in for this is in our power :" and then he dictated to regard of their superstition I may say, quo meli- | him afresh, for some hours, without the least heores, eo deteriores; yet in regard of this, and some sitancy of speech, or discernible interruption of other points concerning human learning and moral | matters, I may say, as Agesilaus said to his enemy, Pharnabasus, Talis quum sis, utinam noster
His application was not successful; the king answered that it had been designed for Sir William Beecher, but that there was some hope that, by satisfying him elsewhere, his majesty might be able to comply with the request. Sir William was satisfied by the promise of £2500, but the provostship was given to Sir Henry Wotton, "who had for many years, like Sisyphus, rolled the restless stone of a state employment; knowing experimentally that the great blessing of sweet content was not to be found in multitudes of men or business,” and that a college was the fittest place to nourish holy thoughts, and to afford rest both to his body and mind, which he much required from his age, being now almost threescore years, and from his urgent pecuniary wants; for he had always been as careless of money as though our Saviour's words, Care not for tomorrow,' were to be literally understood." He, therefore, upon condition of releasing a grant, which he possessed, of the mastership of the rolls, was appointed provost.
He proceeded with his literary labours, and, during this year, published in Latin his celebrated treatise, "De Augmentis Scientiarum," and his important " Historia Vitæ et Mortis."
Between the year 1605, when the Advancement was published, and the year 1623, he made great progress in the completion of the work, which, having divided into nine books, and subdivided each book into chapters, he caused to be translated into Latin by Mr. Herbert, and some other friends, and published in Latin in 1623, in a volume entitled De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum.
This treatise De Augmentis is an improvement, by expunging, enlarging, and arranging, of the Advancement of Learning.
In the first part there are scarcely any alterations, except the omission of his beautiful praise of Elizabeth, not, perhaps, very acceptable to her successor. The material alterations are in the analysis of Natural History and Natural Philosophy; in his expansion of a small portion of the science of "Justitia Universalis ;" in that part of human philosophy under the head of Government, which relates to man as a member of society; and in his arrangement of the important subject of revealed religion.
At this disappointment Bacon could not be much affected. One day, as he was dictating to Dr. Rawley some of the experiments in his Sylva, he had sent a friend to court, to receive for him a final answer, touching the effect of a grant which had been made him by King James. He tions:
In the annexed outline of the work the parts marked in italics exhibit the material altera
Of this extraordinary work various editions and translations have been since published.1
1 Different editions of the treatise De Augmentis. 1. The first edition is thus described by Tenison: "The fairest and most correct edition of this book in Latin is that in folio, printed at London, 1623; and whoever would understand the Lord Bacon's cypher, let him consult that accurate edition: for, in some other editions which I have perused, the form of the letters of the alphabet, in which much of the mystery consisteth, is not observed, but the roman and italic shapes of them are confounded." The following is a copy of the title page: "Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervlamio, Vice-Comitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri 1x. Ad Regem svvm. Londini, in Officina Joannis Haviland, MDCXXIII." There is a copy at Cambridge and in the British Museum, and I have a copy.
2. The work had scarcely appeared in England, when an edition was published in France: it appeared in 1624. The following is a copy of the title page: Francisci Baronis de Vervlamio Vicecomitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis Scienciarum. Libri IX. Ad Regem svvm. Iuxta exemplar Londini impressum. Parisiis, typis Petri Metayer, typographi Regij. M.DC XXIV." I have a copy.
3. In 1638 an edition was published by Dr. Rawley, in a folio entitled, "Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervlamio ViceComitis Sancti Albani tractatus de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum qui est Instaurationis magne pars prima. Ad regem svvm. Londini, typis Ioh. Haviland. Prostant ad insignia Regia in Cemeterio D. Pauli, apud Iocosam Norton et Richardum Whitakerum. 1638."
4. In the year 1645 an edition in 12mo. was published in Holland. The following is the title page: Francisci Baconis de Verulamio, Vice-Comitis Sancti Albani de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri Ix. Ad Regem suum. Editio nova, cum Indice rerum et verborum locupletissimo. Luzd. Batav. apud Franciscum Moyardum et Adrianum Wijngaerde. Anno 1645."-The title page of this Dutch edition is adorned with an engraving, not undeserving the attention of our students in England: it is of a youth aspiring to the attainment of knowledge.
5. In 1652 another edition in 12mo. was published in Holland: the engraving prefixed to the edition of 1645 is also prefixed to this edition; but the descriptive title is omitted, and the address to the reader is at the back of the engraving. The following is the title page: "Fr. Baconis de Vervlam Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarvm. Lib. IX. Lvgd. Batavorvin, ex officina Adriani Wijngaerden. Anno
6. In 1662 another edition was published in 12mo. in Holland. The following is a copy of the title page: "Fr. Baconis de Vervlam Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarum. Lib. IX. Amstelædami, sumptibus Joannis Ravesteinij. 1662." At the back of which, as in the edition of 1652, there is the address to the reader: "Amice Lector. Hoc opus de Augmentis Scientiarum, novo ejusdem autoris organo si præmittatur, non modo necessarium ei lucem præbet; sed et partitiones continet scientiarum quæ primam Instaurationis magnæ partem constituunt quas id circo auctor in ipso organi limine retractare noluit. Hæc te scire volebam.’ ""
7. In 1765 an edition in 8vo. was published at Venice. The following is the title page: "Francisci Baronis de Verulamio, Angliæ Cancellarii de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Pars prima. Lugani, MDCCLXIII. Expensis Gasparis Girardi, Bibliopolæ Veneti." I have a copy.
8. In 1779 an edition was published on the continent. The following is the title page: "Francisci Baconi Baronis de Verulamio de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Tomus 1. Wirceburgi, apud Jo. Jac. Stahel. 1779."
9. In 1829 another edition was published on the continent, in two vols., of which the following is the title page: "Francisci Baconis de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri IX. Ad fidem optimarum editionum edidit vitamque auctoris adjecit Philippus Mayer, Philosophie Doctor et Gymnasii | Norimbergensis Collega. Norimbergae, sumptibus Riegelii et Wiessneri. MDCCCXXIX."
Such are the different editions of which I have any know ledge. I understand that editions have been published in Germany, for which I have sent, and hope to be able to pro
Copies were presented to the king, to whom it was dedicated, the Prince, the Duke of Bucking
Is it not rather extraordinary that not an edition has been published in either of the universities of England
In the year 1640 a translation into English was published at Oxford, with a portrait of the philosopher writing his Instauratio, and the following inscriptions prefixed and subjoined: Tertius a Platone philosophiæ princeps. Quod feliciter vortat reip. literaria V. C. Fran. de Verulamio philosoph. libertates assertor avdax, scientiaru' reparator felix mundi mentisq. magnus arbiter inclytis max. terrarum orbis Acad. Oxon. Contab. Q. hanc suam Instavr. voto suscepto vivus decernebat obiit v. non. April. 11. D. N. Caroli I. Pp. Aug. CIɔ 1ɔC XXVI"-Appended is another engraving of two spheres, the one of the visible, the other of the intellectual world, and supported by two fixed pillars, the one Oxford and the other Cambridge, with a vessel sailing between them, with the following inscription: "Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning, or the Partitions of Sciences, IX Bookes. Written in Latin by the most illustrious and famous Lord Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Vicont St. Alban, Counsilour of Estate and Lord Chancellor of England. Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia. Oxford, printed by Leon. Lichfield, printer to the University for Rob. Young, and Ed. Forrest. CICIƆC XL.”
In the year 1674 another edition of the translation by Wats was published in London, but instead of the engravings which were prefixed to the edition of 1640, there is prefixed to the annexed title page only a portrait of Lord Bacon. The following is the title page: "Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning: or the Partitions of Sciences. Nine Books. Written in Latin by the most eminent, illustrious and famous Lord Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, Counsellor of Estate, and Lord Chancellor of England. Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. London, printed for Thomas Williams, at the Golden Ball is Osier lane, 1674."
Of these translations Archbishop Tenison thus speaks in the Baconiana: "The whole of this book was rendered into English by Dr. Gilbert Wats, of Oxford, and the translation has been well received by many: but some there were, who wished that a translation had been set forth, in which the genius and spirit of the Lord Bacon had more appeared. And I have seen a letter written by certain gentlemen to Dr. Rawley, wherein they thus importune him for a more accurate version, by his own hand. 'It is our humble suit to you, and we do earnestly solicit you to give yourself the trouble to correct the too much defective translation of De Augmentis Scientiarum, which Dr. Wats hath set forth. It is a thousand pities that so worthy a piece should lose its grace and credit by an ill expositor; since those persons who read that translation, taking it for genuine, and upon that presumption not regarding the Latin edition, are thereby robbed of that benefit which, if you would please to undertake the business, they might receive. This tendeth to the dishonour of that noble lord, and the Advancement of Learning.'"
Of the correctness or incorrectness of these observations, some estimate may be formed from the following specimens ; The Instauratio Magna thus begins: "Franciscus de Verulamio sic cogitavit."-Translation by Wats: "Francis Lord Verulam consulted thus."
Another specimen: Advancement of Learning.-"We see in all other pleasures there is satiety, and after they be used their verdure departeth; which showeth well they be but deceits of pleasure, and not pleasures, and that it was the novelty which pleased, and not the quality; and therefore we see that voluptuous men turn friars, and ambitious men turn melancholy; but of knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfaction and appetite are perpetually interchangeable, and therefore appeareth to be good in itself simply, without fallacy or accident."
Wats's Translation.-"In all other pleasures there is a finite variety, and after they grow a little stale, their flower and verdure fades and departs; whereby we are instructed that they were not indeed pure and sincere pleasures, but shadows and deceits of pleasures, and that it was the novelty which pleased, and not the quality; wherefore voluptuous men often turn friars, and the declining age of ambitious
ham, Trinity College, Cambridge, the University his body was reduced to bones and his bones alof Cambridge, and the University of Oxford.The present was gratefully acknowledged by the different patrons to whom it was presented, and by all the learning of England.
Fifty years after its publication it was included at Rome in the list "Librorum Prohibitorum," in which list it is now included in Spain.
The vanity of these attempts to resist the progress of knowledge might, it should seem, by this time be understood even at the Vatican.
How beautifully are the consequences of this intolerance thus stated by Fuller: "Hitherto the corpse of John Wickliffe had quietly slept in his grave about forty-one years after his death, till
most to dust. For though the earth in the chancel of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, where he was interred, hath not so quick a digestion with the earth of Aceldama, to consume flesh in twenty-four hours, yet such the appetite thereof, and all other English graves, to leave small reversions of a body after so many years. But now such the spleen of the council of Constance, as they not only cursed his memory as dying an obstinate heretic, but ordered that his bones (with this charitable caution,—if it may be discerned from the bodies of other faithful people) be taken out of the ground, and thrown far off from any Christian burial. In obedience hereunto, Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, Diocesan of Lutter
princes is commonly more sad and besieged with melan-worth, sent his officers, vultures with a quick sight choly; but of knowledge there is no satiety, but vicissitude, perpetually and interchangeably returning of fruition and appetite; so that the good of this delight must needs be simpler,
without accident or fallacy."
scent at a dead carcass, to ungrave him. Accordingly to Lutterworth they come; summer, commissary, official, chancellor, proctors, doctors, In the year 1632 a translation into French was published in and their servants, so that the remnant of the Paris. The following is a copy of the title page: Livres de la Dignité et de l'Accroissement des Sciences, com-body would not hold out a bone amongst so many posez par Francois Bacon, Baron de Verulam et Vicomte de hands, take what was left out of the grave, and Saint Aubain, et traduits de Latin en Francois par le Sieur burnt them to ashes, and cast them into Swift, a neighbouring brook running hard by. this brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they into the main ocean; and thus the ashes of Wickliffe are the emblem of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world
de Golefer, Conseiller et Historiographe du Roy. A Paris, chez Jaques Dugast, rue Sainct Jean de Beauvais, a l'Olivier de Robert Estienne et en sa boutique au bas de la rue de la Harpe. M.DC.XXXII. avec privilege du Roy."-Of this edition Archbishop Tenison says, "This work hath been also translated into French, upon the motion of the Marquis Fiat; but in it there are many things wholly omitted, many things perfectly mistaken, and some things, especially such as relate to
religion, wilfully perverted. Insomuch that, in one place, he makes his lordship to magnify the Legend: a book sure of little credit with him, when he thus began one of his essays, 'I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind." " I have a copy of this edition.
If Bacon had completed his intended work "Sympathy and Antipathy," the constant antipathy of ignorance to intellect, originating sometimes in the painful feeling of infericrity,
A letter of the Lord Bacon's, in French, to the Marquess Fiat, sometimes in the fear of worldly injury, but
relating to his Essays.
Monsieur l'Ambassadeur mon File,-Voyant que vostre excellence faict et trait mariages, non seulement entre les princes d'Angletere et de France, mais aussi entre les langues (puis que faictes traduire non liure de l'Advancement des Sciences en Francois) i' ai bien voulu vous envoyer,
There is a translation into French in the edition of Lord Bacon's works, published in the eighth year of the French Republic. The following is the title page of this edition "Euvres de François Bacon, Chancelier d'Angletaire; traduites par Ant. La Salle; avec des notes critiques, historiques et litteraires. Tome premier. A Dijon, de l'Imprimerie de L. N. Frantin, an 8 de la Republique Française."
London.... 1st edit.
... 3d edit.
.. Paris. Haviland.... London
Venice ... 7th edit.
. 8vo.... Gerard
1640.... English. G. Wats....
always in the influence of some passion more powerful than the love of truth, would not have escaped his notice.
In this year he also published his History of Life and Death, which, of all his works, is one of the most extraordinary, both for the extent of his views, and the minute accuracy with which each part is investigated. It is addressed, not, to use his own expression, "to the Adonises of literature, but to Hercules's followers; that is, the more severe and laborious inquirers into truth."
Upon his entrance, in the Advancement of Learning, on the science of human nature, he says, “The knowledge of man, although only a portion of knowledge in the continent of nature, is to man the end of all knowledge:" and, in furtherance of this opinion, he explains that the Wirceburgi. 8th. 2 vols. object of education ought to be knowledge and improvement of the body and the mind.
.. 6th edit.
Nuremberg. 9th. 2 vols.
Oxford.... Folio. London .Folio. .. Paris.
English. G. Wats..
1632.... French. Dugast
Of the importance of knowledge of the body, that, "while sojourning in this wilderness, and travelling to the land of promise, our vestments should be preserved," he is incessant in his observations. He divides the subject into