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149. Proceedings of the Affociation for promoting the Discovery of the interior Parts of Africa*. THIS Affociation took place on the 9th of June, 1788, and confifts, according to the lift prefixed to this work, of 95 members; out of which number the following perfons were elected a committee: Lord Rawdon, the Bishop of Landaff, Sir Jofeph Banks, Mr. Beaufoy, and Mr. Stuart. To thefe five gentlemen were configned the direction of its funds, the management of its correfpondence, and the choice of the perfons to whom the geographic million was to be affigned. Perfuaded of the importance of the object which the Affociation had in view, their Committee loft no time in executing the plan which it had formed. Two gentlemen were recommended to them; and, appearing to be eminently qualified for making the projected refearches, they were chofen. One was a Mr. Ledyard; the

other a Mr. Lucas.

Mr. Ledyard's hiftory, which pointed him out to the Society as a proper per fon for undertaking the African adventure, is curious and amufing.

"He was an American by birth, and feemed from his youth to have felt an invincible defire to make himfelf acquainted with unknown or imperfectly-difcovered regions of the globe. For feveral years he had lived with the Indians of America, had studied their manners, and had practifed in their fchool the means of obtaining their protection, and of recommending himself to the favour of favages. In the humble fituation of a corporal of marines, to which he fubmitted rather than relinquish his pursuit, he had made, with Capt. Cook, the voyage of the world; and feeling, on his return, an anxious defire of penetrating from the North-western coaft, which Cook had partly explored, to the Eastern coaft, with which he himfelf was perfectly familiar, he determined to traverfe the vait continent, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.

"His firft plan for the purpofe was that of embarking in a veffel which was preparing to fail, on a voyage of commercial adventure, to Nootka Sound, on the Weftern coaft of America; and with this view he expended, in fea-ftores, the greatest part of the money which his chief benefactor, Sir Jofeph Banks (whofe generous conduct the writer of

this narrative has often heard him acknowTedge), had liberally fupplied. But the feleme being fruftrated by the rapacity of a custom-houfe officer, who had feized and detained the veffel for reafons which, on legal enquiry, proved to be frivolous, he deter

*This work is not fold, but printed for the afe of the members of the Affociation, 1790.

mined to travel over land to Kamchatka from whence, to the Western coast of America, the pallage is extremely thort. With no more than ten guineas in his purfe, which was all that he had left, he croffed the British

Channel to Offend, and, by the way of Denmark and the Sound, proceeded to the capital of Sweden; from whence, as it was Winter, he attempted to traverse the Gulph of Both

nia on the ice, in order to reach Kamfchatka by the shortest way; but finding, when he came to the middle of the fea, that the water was not frozen, he returned to Stockholm, and, taking his courfe Northward, walked into the Arctic Circle, and, paling round the head of the Gulph, defcended, on its Eaftern fide, to Petersburg.

"There he was foon noticed as an extraWithout ftockings or fhoes, ordinary man. and in too much poverty to provide himself vitation to dine with the Portuguese Ambafwith either, he received and accepted an infador. To this invitation it was probably owing that he was able to obtain the fum of twenty guineus for a bill on Sir Jofeph Banks, which he confefled he had no authority to draw, but which, in confideration of the bufinefs that he had undertaken, and of the progrefs that he had made, Sir Jofeph, he believed, would not be unwilling to pay. To the Ambalador's interett it might alfo he owing that he obtained permiffion to accom pany a detachment of stores, which the Emprets had ordered to be fent to Yakutz, for the ufe of Mr. Billings, an Englishman, at that time in her service.

"Thus accommodated, he travelled Eaftward through Siberia, fix thousand miles, to Yakutz, where he was kindly received by Mr. Billings, whom he rentembered on board Capt. Cook's fhip, in the fituation of the aftronomer's fervant, but to whom the Emprefs had now entrusted her fchemes of Northern difcovery.

From Yakutz he procceded to Oczakow, on the coaft of the Kamíchátka fea; from whence he meant to have paffed over to that peninfula, and to have embarked on the Eattern fide, in one of the Ruffian vetlets that trade to the Weitern thores of America; but finding that the navigation was complete ly obftructed by the ice, he returned to Yakutz, in order to wait for the conclufion of the winter.

"Such was his fituation when, in confequence of fufpicions not hitherto explained, or refentments for which no reaton is alligned, he was feized, in the Emprets's name, by two Ruilian foldiers, who placed him in a fledge, and, conveying him, in the depth of winter, through the defarts of the Northern Tartary, left him at lait on the frontiers of the Polish dominions. As they parted, they told him, that, if he returned to Rulia, he would certainly be hanged; but that, if he chofe to go back to England, they wished him a pleasant journey.

"In the midft of poverty, covered with rags, infested with the ufual accompaniment of fuch clothing, worn with continued hard fhip, exhausted by difeafe, without friends, without credit, unknown, and full of mifery, he found his way to Koningsberg. There, in the hour of his atmoft diftrefs, he refolves once more to have recourfe to his old benefactor; and he luckily found a person who was willing to take his draft for five guineas

on the Prefident of the Royal Society.

"With this affiftance he arrived in England, and immediately waited on Sir Jofeph Banks, who told him, knowing his temper, that he believed he could recommend him to an adventure almost as perilous as the one from which he had returned; and then communicated to him the wishes of the Affociation for difcovering the inland countries of Africa. Ledyard replied, that he had always determined to traverse the continent of Africa as foon as he had explored the interior of North America; and, as Sir Jofeph had

offered him a letter of introduction, he came

directly to the writer of thefe memoirs. Before I had learnt from the note the name and bufinefs of my vifitor, I was ftruck with the manliness of his perfor, the breadth of his cheft, the openness of his countenance, and the inquietude of his eye. I opened the map of Africa before him, and, tracing a line from Cairo to Sennar, and from thence Weftward in the latitude and fuppofed direction of the Niger, I told him that was his route, by which I was anxious that Africa might, if poffible, be explored. He faid, he should think himself fingularly fortunate to be entrufted with the adventure. I asked him

when he would fet out? morning,' was his anfwer.

To-morrow

Such a perfen as Mr. Ledyard was formed by Nature for the object in contemplation; and, were we unacquainted with the fequel, we thould congratulate the Society in being fo fortunate as to find fuch a man for one of their mifiionaries;-but--the reader will foon be acquainted with the melancholy circum

ftance to which we allude.

Mr. Ledyard undertook, at his own defire, the difficult and perilous task of traversing from Eaft to Weft, in the latitude attributed to the Niger, the wideft part of the continent of Africa. On this bold adventure he left London June 30, 1781, and arrived at Cairo on the 19th o Auguft.

Hence he tranfmitted fuch accounts to his employers as manifett him to have been a traveller who obferved, reflected, and compared; and fuch was the information which he collected here from the travelling fave merchants, and from others, relpecting the interior diftricts of Africa, that he was im, atent 10 ex

plore them. He wrote to the Commit. tee, that his next communication would be from Sennar (600 miles to the South of Cairo); but death, attributed to va rious caufes, arrefted him at the commencement of his researches, and dif appointed the hopes which were entertained of his projected journey. A bilious complaint, produced by vexatious delays, induced him to try too strong a dofe of the acid of vitriol, which he counteracted by the ftrongest tartar emetic; the continued difcharge of blood produced by which, haftened his death, and he was buried at Cairo.

At

Mr. Lucas had been fent, when a boy, to Cadiz, for education as a mer chant; but being taken by a Sallee rover, was carried as a flave to Morocco, where he continued three years; and on his arrival at Gibraltar, at the defire of Gen. Cornwallis, accepted the office of vice-conful and chargé des affaires in the empire of Morocco. the end of fixteen years, he returned to England, and was foon appointed Oriental interpreter to the British Court; the falary of which place was continued by his Majefty's order after he had accepted the Society's commiffion.-He embarked for Tripoli October 18, 1788, with inftructions to proceed over the defert of Zahara to Fezzan, to collect, and to tranfmit by way of Tripoli, whatever intelligence the people of Fezzan, or the traders thither, might be able to afford refpecting the interior of the continent; and to return by the way of Gambia, or the coaft of Guinea.

Mr. Lucas found, and fo the reader will find likewife, that inftructions to undertake great enterprizes are more cafily given than executed. He fets out, indeed, mounted on a handfome mule, prefented to him by the Bey, the Ba thaw's eldeft fon, in company with Shereefs, for the kingdom of Fezzan, refolved to penetrate from Tripoli even into Gambia; but his peregrinations, which began Feb. 1, 1789, terminated at Mefurata, on Feb. 7; and he returned to England, July 26, 1789.

His only refource under thefe difappointments was to folicit the information of his fellow-travellers; and he tranfmitted to the Society the refult of his conferences. A memoir, compiled in this way, from the reports of a Shereef Imhomined, will not be deemed very fatisfactory; and yet it certainly merits confideration, as it is, in part, corroborated by other teftimonies.

The

The Shereef might not mean to deceive; and yet, in confequence of his education, and particular prejudices, on account of the language which he ufed, and of not properly diftinguishing between vague report and attefted facts, we may be allowed to question whether things exactly accord with this relation before us. The Aga Mohammed told Mr. Ledyard, that "he would fee, in "his travels, a people who had the 66 power of tranfmuting themselves into "the forms of different animals," p. 28; and hence it is fair to infer, that no abfolute dependence is to be placed on the accuracy of the Mohammedan accounts of the interior districts of this quarter of the globe. Yet, having no other fources of information, we muft, for the prefent, content ourselves with thefe communications.

From the various conferences of Mr. Lucas with the Shereef Imhammed, the following narrative is compofed.

It defcribes the kingdom of Fezzan to be a small circular domain, placed in a vaft wilderness, as an island in the midft of the ocean, containing near an hundred towns and villages, of which Mourzouk is the capital, diftant, South, from Mefurata, about 390 miles. In this kingdom are to be seen fome venerable remains of antient magnificence, some districts of remarkable fertility, and numerous fmoaking lakes, producing a fpecies of foffil alkali, called trona. Agriculture and pafturage are the principal occupations of the Fezzanners, They do not appear to have any coin. Their medium of commerce is goldduft. Their houses, or rather huts, are built of clay, and are covered with branches of trees, on which earth is laid. As rain never falls at Fezzan, this covering is a fufficient protection. Their drefs refembles that of the Moors of Barbary; but, during the heats of Summer, which are intenfe, they only wear drawers, and a cap to protect their heads from the immediate action of the fun. To thefe, many particulars are added, of their perfons, difeafes, and mode of cure; of their religion, government, taxes, animal and vegetable productions. Their fovereign, who is 2 tributary of the Bafhaw of Tripoli, adminifters impartial juftice; and, as a proof of the afcendency which he pofeffes in this refpect over his fubjects, the Fezzanners, who travelled with Mr. Lucas, detcribed to him the following

cuftom:

"If a man has injured another, and refuses to go with him to the judge, the complainant draws a circle round the aggreffor; folemnly charges him, in the king's name, not to leave the place till the officers of justice, in fearch of whom he is going, fhall arrive; and fuch (if they are to be credited) is, on the one hand, his fear of the punishment which is inflicted on those who difobey the injunction, and fo great, on the other, is his dread of the perpetual banishment which, if he feeks his fafety by withdrawing from the kingdom, must be his inevitable lot, that this imaginary prifon operates as a real confinement, and the offender fubmiflively waits the arrival of the officers of justice."

The narrative proceeds to ftate, that, South-eaft of Mourzouk, at the distance of 150 miles, is a fandy defart, 200 miles wide; beyond which, are the mountains of Tibefti, inhabited by ferocious favages, tributary to Fezzan. The vallies between the mountains are faid to be fertilized by innumerable fprings, to abound with corn, and to be celebrated for their breed of camels. The tribute of the Tibeftins to the king of Fezzan is twenty camel loads of

fenna.

This kingdom is inconfiderable, when compared with the two great empires of Bornou and Cashna, which lie South of Fezzan, occupying that vaft region which fpreads itfelf from the river of the Antelopes for 1200 miles Weftward, and includes a great part of the Niger's courfe. Cafhna, we are informed, contains a thousand towns and villages; and in Bornou, which is ftill more confiderable, thirty languages are faid to be fpoken. The latter is reprefented as a fertile and beautiful country, its capital being fituated within a day's journey of the river Wod-el-Gazel, which is lot in the fandy waftes of the vaft defart of Bilma, and is inhabited by herdfinen, dwelling, like the old patriarchs, in tents, and whofe wealth confifts in their cattle. (Bornou, or Bernoa, is a word fignifying the land of Noah; for the Arabs conceive, that, on the retiring of the deluge, its mountains received the ark.) Though they cultivate various forts of grain, the ufe of the plough is unknown, and the hoe is the only inftrument of husbandry. Here grapes, apricots, and pomegranates, together with limes and lemons, and two fpecies of melons, the water and the mufk, are produced in great abundance: but one

* Horfes and horned cattle, goa s, sheep, and camels, are the common animals of the country.

of

of the most valuable of its vegetables is a tree called Kedéyna, which, in form and height, refembles the olive, is like the lemon in its leaf, and bears a nut, of which the kernel and the shell are both in great eftimation, the first as a fruit, the laft on account of the oil which it furnishes when bruifed, and which fupplies the lamps of the people of Bornou with a fubftitute for the oil of olives. P. 139. Bees, it is added, are fo numerous, that the wax is often thrown away, as an article of no value in the market. Many other particulars are added, for which we must refer to the work. The population is described by the expreffion, a countless multitude. We shall pafs over the nature of their religion, which is Mohammedan; of their government, which is an elective monarchy; and the fingular mode of their electing a new king from among the children of the deceafed fovereign: but the account of the prefent fultan, his wives, and his children (p. 151), is too curious not to be exhibited.

"The prefent fultan, whofe name is Alli, is a man of an unoftentatious, plain appearance, for he feldom wears any other drefs than the common blue shirt of cotton or filk, and the filk or muslin turban, which form the ufual drefs of the country. Such, however, is-the magnificence of his feraglio, that the ladies who inhabit it are faid to be 500 in number, and he himself is defcribed as the

reputed father of 350 children, of whom 300 are males; a disproportion which naturally fuggefts the idea that the mother, preferring to the gratification of natural affection the joy of feeing herself the fuppofed parent of a future candidate for the empire, fometimes changes her female child for the male offfpring of a stranger."

We are told, that fire-arms, though not unknown to the people of Bornou, are not poffeffed by them.

South-eaft from Bornou lies the extenfive kingdom of Begarmee; and, beyond this kingdom, are faid to be feveral tribes of negroes, idolaters, and feeders on human flesh. Thefe, we are told, are annually invaded by the Bergamcefe; and, when they have taken as many prifoners as their purpofe may require, they drive the captives, like cattle, to Begarmee. It is further faid, that if any of them, exhaufted by fatigue, happen to linger in their pace, one of the horfemen feizes on the oldest, and, catting off his arm, ufes it as a club to drive on the ref.

The work confifts of eleven chapters. The ninth contains a view of the trade

from Fezzan to Tripoli, Bornou, Cafhna, and the countries on the South of the Niger; the eleventh and laft, the conclufions drawn from the whole narrative, by its author, Mr. Beaufoy, who, by a diffuse and florid ftyle, has made the most of the discoveries of these two adventurers. To the whole is fubjoined a map of Africa, with geographical elucidations, by Major Rennell, whofe abilities in that line are well known.

150. A Companion in a Tour round Lymington, comprehending a brief Account of that Place, and its Environs in the New Forest, Isle of Wight, and Towns of Southampton, Chriftchurch, &c. By Richard Warner, Jun. of Sway, near Lymington,

WE have met with Mr.W, in our walk of review, as the illuftrator of Hampshire Domefday, in p. 55 of the prefent volume. This fecond publication, intended to "while away the tedious hours of "fickness, and erafe from the mind the

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painful recollection of fevere and rei"terated difappointments," has been "brought from its retreat in compli"ance with the flattering requifition of "a much-honoured friend." These confiderations, he hopes, will protect it from the frown of faftidiousness, and the fatal fang of criticism, and prove pow erful enough to reprefs-cenfure, though the merit of the work may not be deemed fufficient to exact applause. Confidering his motive, we cannot help with ing him fuccefs, notwithftanding the want of novelty in his plan, and the fuftian of his style. He declines entering the wilderness of the Saxon antiquity, and piercing the thick veil of obfcurity which involves the early ages of British ftory: yet he prefently goes back to Vefpafian, Aurelius Ambro fius, and Cerdic. He fets Cardinal Wolfey in the ftocks, though he confeffes he had nothing to do here; confounds vallum with a ditch, and forgets that aggeres and valla are fynonymous. After a very fhort defcription of the town, he "takes a wider fweep" into the New Forett, a "fertile fpot, defo"lated by the ruinous arm of William "the Conqueror." The forest-laws, at the mention of which "Freedom burns "with honeft indignation," take up 10 pages. We fuppofe the impreffion of a horfe's boof, on an old feal, p. 50, was a horte-bee. --Prefs errors: Cambden, pathim. Adriadne, p. 24. P. 60, twice Claufentum with a final c. P. 75, the kitchen at Netley Abbey "defigned for

"the

66

Review of New Publications.

"the appropriate use of the abbot."The filly ftory of the carpenter's dream, who purchafed the abbey of St. Bartlet (Berkeley), Lucy retailed from Willis, P. 77, and "that able antiquary and exquifite draughtfman Capt. Grofe, "in his fuperb work," p. 163; from the last of whom the account of this and Beaulieu abbies are chiefly taken. Luttrell's Folly, and Erbury, and Baadef ley, are described p. 81-84. The Ife of Wight takes-up 85 pages, from p. 103-188, from its earliest history, its period of quiefcence and ferenity" under the Romans till "the prospect was "fuddenly obfcured" under the Saxons, and the extermination of its inhabitants by Ceadwalla, who, by granting a tenth part of his spoils to the clergy, obtained fall and perfect abfolution for all the blood he had unjustly fpilt in the acervation of them. "The Danish pirates "invading the island were taken pri"foners, and paid the forfeit of their "lives to Alfred, for their temerarious infolence." (pp. 119, 120). "the quietude of the Roman govern'During "ments here," p. 147. "It is faid "there is a farm in the island, the tythes of which, amounting to 12. "per annum, belong to Carifbrook "church, the caftle itself conftituting "the parish of St. Nicholas." p. 170. No fuch thing appears from Sir Richard Worley's account of this parish, in his Hiftory of the Isle of Wight, pp. 235, 236. Bp. Gibjon's for Bp. Tanner's Monafticon Anglicanum, p. 174, is the effect of hafty writing. P. 220. The apoftrophe to departed Monkery might have been fpared, as well as the general obfervation, deduced from the "tottering remains of "antient caftles, where the lawless and "contumacious baron lived in almoft re"gal ponip," &c. and the ponderous ruins of abbies, &c. that Britain is the happieft country at prefent in the world.

86

66

151. Invocations addressed to the Deity, the O can, and to Woman. To which is added, The Diffolution, a Fragment.

637

more than the Diffolution of Parliament Gulliver's Travels, thould be fuppofed was intended, left this Fragment, like capable of a political conftruction.

"To Miss ***

"Madam,

tues, of the most elegant accomplishments, "If a combination of the heav'nlieft virand of a form where dignity and love, in unifon, combine, could warrant tributes of unmeaning adulation,—even the hacknied panegyrift would not know how to cull his words, or to form his phrates, adequate to the celebration of your merits.

RANT, turgidity, and bombaft, miftaken for fine writing. We doubt if our language is fo qualified for this fpecies of compofition as the French; or if fuch compofitions are worth reading in either. We fhall, however, give the Dedication and Advertisement prefixed to this little effay, and the concluding Fragment, as a short fample, and to convince the reader that fomething GENT. MAG. July, 1790.

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Happy fhould I have been to have prefixed your name to this Dedication, as a volent criticism;-but, too fenfible of the tower of strength against the shafts of malemany imperfections in these trifles,-too would not place it in the power of a cenfoanxious for your fame-for your repofe-I rious world to impeach your tafte, or to dif honour your understanding.

"To you, fufceptible of the finest feelings which adorn human nature-to your unlimited generofity-I need not appeal:-you can overlook imperfection-you can find beauties hidden from the common eye-you can trace virtues on a barren foil.

"When you perufe these Invocations, call fied you may be in condemnuing the author's forth all your candour; and, however jufti head, fpare, oh fpare his heart!

world,--my only happiness, my only honour, "Infenfible to the honours of a corrupt which neither the gold, or the defpotifm of Indus, thould induce me to refign, is that of being confidered your most devoted fervant."

"ADVERTISEMENT.

"The following fpecies of compofition very few have attempted, and in it ftill

fewer have fucceeded.

"In the English language there is hardly an inftance of even mediocrity; and in the French and German, if we except the Abbés Reyrac and Reynal, Fenelon and Gefner, tiful branch of literature, very few are dewho have particularly excelled in this beau ferving of notice.

"If I have failed, I have this confolation cations meet with a favourable reception, the to alleviate my fall:-but fhould thefe Invoauthor will be induced to make very confiderable additions to the fubjects he has already noticed, as well as by annexing others which he has in contemplation.

gonfidered only as the outline of a much more "The Fragment on the Diffolution is to be extenfive effort, which, at fome future period, he may be induced to lay before the publick."

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