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day ;-floating on the whirl-pool of destruction-borne by each adverfe gale, it clath'd its maffy fides 'gainst other fpheres! -Now darkness, impervious darknefs, in fable cloath'd the defolated plain;-now glaring light affum'd dominion-and fires, fierce, flaming, fcorch'd the globe.
"Etna belch'd its yearning bowels forth;Ocean mad, with mad'ning fury, left its native bed, and continents emerg'd within its waves; mountains, whofe fnowy tops affail the water-freighted clouds, from their foundations hurl'd. Some were confum'd within the folar orb-while others moulder'd in an endless voyage.
"Nature, ghaftly, ponder'd on the works of Heav'n-then heav'd a deadly figh, which fhook the bottom of her foul.
"Time ftood ftill, defirous of one more conqueft; -the fethlefs monfter infix'd him with his lance-then breath'd himself, to breathe no more!
"From the vaulted chambers of the skies, angels beheld the awefal wreck! The brazen clafps that clench'd the Book of Fate flew from their hold, and to the aftonish'd univerfe these words pourtray'd,
THE WORLD'S NO MORE! From the Almighty Court fcarce had this fummons iffued to the fons of Earth, than maufoleums fever'd from their bafe, and graves, wide opening, relign'd the dead!—
"Along the filent plain, with vulgar ghofts, ftalk'd kings and heroes of high renown. Beggars affum'd a portly gait, and rank'd with monarchs who would once have fpurn'd them from their thrones.
Undiftinguish'd-Alexander and Cæfar left their tombs, fcenes of bloody mifery, to record. Cruel Nero rofe, and in his vifage ftill harbour'd enmity againft mankind.
"In aweful ftate, from the etherial manfions, flowly defcended the SAVIOUR of MANKIND! calm, yet firm; just, yet merciful-his angelic countenance diffus'd benignity and love o'er the wide world.
"Majeftically feated on the sphere whence, in days of yore, he infamously was driven,the Jew, the Deift trembled and the Atheist (juft punishment for Atheism) was annihi
lated for ever.
"Rewards and punishments ftraightly he diftributed amidst the ghaftly throng !-the proud monarch, who ne'er vouchfaf'd to hear his fubject's plaints-eternal and oppreffive bondage was his doom!-To the blood-thirsty warrior,-contention, endless, galls his future days-each battle with the infernal imps fecures a wound incurable.
"But the fovereign, whofe people's miferies, whofe happinefs were his own, the Judge omnipotent crown'd with glory. Seated on a heav'nly throne-there he practifeth all his virtues o'er again, and many a latent fpark of excellence, which want of genial warmth had hid from mortal eyes, now Lean'd around in bright effulgence.
"From the feat of Wisdom, the fycophant, whofe fenfe is pride, whofe demeanour is fervility, contempt invariable was the decree. To the hypocrite, hypocrify-and to the avaricious mortal, poffeffions unbounded fill'd his neighbour's coffers, himself exempted.
"The rogue, whofe deeds of villainy were marked by patriotifm, our Saviour doom'd to be the fcoff of hell:-but the real lover of his country rank'd among the fenators of heav'n.
"Adulterers, fornicators, flanderers, murderers, headlong were hurled down the fulphureous gulph, to rack in tortures co-eval and co-eternal with the univerfe.
"Those whofe crimes partook not of fo deep a die, experienced but a tranfitory punishment-for as our Judge had promis'd us he would fave the world, only infernal villainy felt infernal punishment.
"As once the Son of God, defpifed by man, fraught with mercy, left the world :now by hofts furrounded, partakers of his endless bounty, he wing'd his rapid flight into the regions of perpetual harmony."
152. The Slave Trade indifpenfable; in Anfer to the Speech of William Wilberforce, Esq. May 13, 1789. By a Weft India Merchant.
THE quefton being brought fo near, and the publick at large, as well as the fenate, tired of the tedious proceedings on it, we hail content ourselves with tranfcribing the Preface to this pam phlet.
"The African flave trade, an object of the highest importance to all Europe, and partie cularly to the Brife ration, having lately attracted the ferious attention of Parliament, and confequently produced numberless publications, whether in the thape of pamphlets, or of letters in the news-papers, the following remarks, made by a perfon of equal benevolence and intimacy with the fubject, were printed last June, on two fheets of paper, and circulated to fome of the members of both Houses, as well as thewn to a few private friends. The fole defign of this republication is to evince at once the neceffery of a trade fo indifpenfably advantageous to thefe kingdoms, and the needless of continued examinations of evidences before the House of Commons. The latter effect, however, not having taken place, and the affair being revived this feffion with double energy, it proves expedient to lay before the publick at large thefe incontrovertible remarks, in defence of the planters and merchants, nay of the whole community, proportionally interefted in the event of this caufe, and in the preclufion of popular error, while Juftice and Humanity confpire to fubftantiate the dangers, the univerfal dangers that would arife from the abolition of a trade demonftrably conducive to the advantage and happiness of all concerned. Peculiarly is it now indif
penfable to offer thefe remarks to the cool and candid publick, and with all prudent feryour to recommend a fpeedy conclufion to this very grievous as well as unavailing inclination (rather than inquiry) into the flave trade; especially becaufe letters lately arrived from the British colonies are full of alarming apprehenfions, from the infolent behaviour of the Negroes, that fuch infurrections are apparently threatened as, in one night's time, may cut off the bulk of the white people in more than one of the islands.”
The first 33 pages are taken up with remarks on the refolutions of the Weft India planters and merchants, &c. at the London Tavern, May 19, 1789. Then follow other obfervations on the propofed abolition; with a statement of the dreadful confequences of the lofs of America to the commercial part of the kingdom. An alarming picture is drawn of a certain reverend emiffary, who is now found, it is faid, to have become all things to all men, not that be might fave, but that he might feduce, whom poffible. He is pronounced a fpirit no less active in roaming round the Weft of England, to poifon the minds of the ignorant, and procure money for fuborning evidences, obtaining petitions, and purchafing profelytes towards the abolition of the flave trade.
$53. A Letter to the Farmers of Great Britain, Jome Things of Importance; with an Ad drejs to the Publick. By the Author of The Poor Child's Friend.
THIS little track, as well as the writer's former work, contains, at an eafy expence, fome ufeful inftruction in matters of morality and found policy.
154. A Hint of Advice, addressed to the Proreflant Diffenters, on a late Decifion in the Honourable the House of Commons, on a Motion for the Repeal of the Teft and Corporation ARs.
THIS little pamphlet breathes a fpirit of moderation which, we hope and truft, the perfons to whom it is addreffed will copy. It exhorts them to moderate and Properly time their claims, not preling them on Parliament; to fhew an attachment to their Sovereign; to avoid marked diftinctions of candidates at the
"If Mr. Wilberforce and his family were now at Grenada, he would tremble every night at the impending danger, and fink with forrow for the mifchief already brought on the islands, principally by his means."-If the accounts which have very lately appeared in the news-papers from Tortola are true, we cannot but tremble for the confequences of Mr. W's bumanity.
then enfuing election; to give the Eftablishment time for cool reflection on the cafe, and fee whether redreis will not originate from a quarter "not only more powerful but lefs likely to "awaken fufpicions in the minds of "thofe who unanimoufly connect the "Sacramental Test and Corporation "A&t with the fafety of the Etablished "Church;" and even to wait for a change in the Minitter's fentiments, from more enlarged experience: lafly, to exercife candour towards all parties, and attend to the duties of Humanity and Religion, and "in this way be" the Chariots of the British Ifracl, and the horfemen thereof, "in whatever efti"mation they may be held, or whatever the ftate may give or withhold."
155. Curfory Reflections occafioned by the prefent Meetings in Oppofition to the Claims of the Diffenters, and the Repeal of the Corporation and Teft Ais. By Gilbert Wakefield, B.A. and late Fellow of Jefus College, Cambridge. MR. W's defultory way of writing, and the temper with which he writes, will not, we believe, gain him fo many readers as the Continuation of the Sylva Critica would, or his excellent Imitations of Horace. It is pity the good fenfe and enlightened understandings of the Diffenters do not teach them to bear
disappointment better. They feel the vote of the majority. "Thy fons, O Prieft
ley, have fainted: they lie at the head "of all the freets as a wild bull in a net: "they are full of the fury of the Lord, "the rebuke of thy God."
156. An Addrefs to the Right Reverend Samuel Horley, Bishop of St. David's, on the Subje of an Apology for the Liturgy and Clergy of the Church of England. By Gilbert Wakefield, B. d and late Fellow of Jefus College, Cambridge.
THIS is too bad, Mr. W. Much
learning hath made thee mad. treadeft on the pride of Plato with other pride, Πατω τον Πλάτωνος τύφον ειπείς, Ετέρω γε τύφω Διοδένες. We prattife only thy own pedantry on thee, thou candidate for membership in a better church, even the church of the first-born whofe names are written in heaven, where the friends and martyrs of the Proteftant Reformation, whole memories you infult, affuredly are.
*If the Proteftant Diffenters, collectively, avow fuch fentiments, or those held by their great leader, and do not difclaim fuch ways of uttering them, with what face can they circulate the
Addrefs from their Committee to the People of England, dated London, May 11, 1790, in which, after denying their "claim of right to be appointed to offices, "at their own difcretion," they repeat edly fet up claims of rights, and, affecting to confider themselves as a feparate body of men, an imperium in imperio, fet out with giving themselves the best of characters? There is not, however, one argument brought forward in this appeal which has not been fully anfwered in the various pamphlets already reviewed. Our Analytical Brethren apprehend Mr. W. is miftaken in imputing the Apology to the Bishop of St. David's.
157. The Importance of Religious Inftruction illuftrated, in a Sermon preached ar St. Thomas's, January 1, 1790, for the Benefit of the Charity-jchool in Gravel-lane, Southwark. By Sayer Walker.
WHILE fo many of his brethren are preaching up revolt from GOD and the King, Mr. W, paftor of a congregation of Proteftant Diffenters at Enfield, inculcates what is the proper topic of a fermon, the true principles of Chriftianity and Christian benevolence and charity, and gives a comprehenfive view of the inftitution he recommends. He alfo adheres to the primitive price of a fermon, felling that for 6d. which the generality of modern preachers appreciate at double. This fchool was founded in 1687, by three gentlemen, to counteract a Popish fchool, fet up to teach the poor gratis, by one Poulter, a Jefuit. From 40, the original number of scholars, they have now increafed to almoft 200, who
Plato and Ariftotle, who confidered the fick and aged as ufelefs members of their communities, and ought to be put out of the way. From the numerous fubjects of this humane inftitution, which are more than double the num ber of the charitable perfons whose names appear in the lifts of the Society, he takes occafion to prefs the benevolence of the publick, to fupport and cherish "this offspring of Benevolence, "which has been adopted like the in"fant Mofes under royal patronage: it grows ftill, and exercifes its increasing vigour with increafing diligence: but " one hand muft recline upon the generous arm of public favour, in order "that the other may have power to "drag the finking body from the wa"ters, or to lift it from the ftunning "blow of fudden violence. But if this "child of Charity fhall, in time, come 66 to be enfranchifed from precarious "dependence, it will be no flender wit"nefs of your generous efforts, that you "will prefent it as the pious matron of "Ifrael did, her dedicated child, her "firft-born Samuel, healthful and well"clad, weaned from the early wants of
infancy, and well-grown.--Let us "then, from the motives of charity to"wards GOD, whofe glory fhines forth in every act of benevolence; from the "motives of charity toward each family that may receive again into its circle
a dear relative; let us, from the mo"tives of loyalty toward a benign So"vereign, to whom we may prefent the " beft tribute of refcued fubjects; let "ture, and for the love of him who from the impulfes of human na❤
❝condefcended to affume it for our "fakes, be forward and industrious in "foftering, in defending, in promoting "this important work of charity. We may ufe again the words of holy David, "without much perverfion, when we fum up the gain of our endeavours, " Is it
are taught to read, write, and cypher; and the girls prepared for those stations to which Providence may direct them. All are inftru&ted in the principles and duties of Chriftianity. This is the first fchool in the fupport of which Proteftant Diffenters were engaged. It is maintained by the fubfcriptions and bequests" of private perfons, together with an annual fubfcription at the meeting adjoining.
158. A Sermon preached at St. Dunstan's in the Weft, on Sunday, March 28, 1790, for the Benefit of the Royal Humane Society. By the Rev. Jofeph Holden Pott, M. A. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of St. Alban's. FROM the text, 2 Sam. xxiii. 17, the Archdeacon takes occafion to en
large on the value and importance of human life, and the attention paid to it under the Mofaic and Chriftian Revelation, contrafted with the maxims of
not the blood of the men that went in
"jeopardy of their lives ?”
159. Obfervations fuggefted by the Perufal of Mr. Lofft's "Hiftory of the Corporation ard "Teft Acts." By a Clergyman of the Eftablishment.
THE Hiftory here referred to has not fallen under our confideration; but if we were not well affered that it
breathes what has been called "the
fanaticism of liberty," its spirit and
See the Controverfial Letter of a new
tendency might be learned from these Obfervations, which feem to be the work of a clergyman of Suffolk, where Mr. L. alfo refides. They are infcribed to Philip Bowes Broke, Efq. chairman, we believe, of fome of the meetings of the friends of the Church, in the late buftle about the Acts in question. The general condu&t of the Diffenters for merly, and on this occafion, and their attempts at the fubverfion of the Eftabfifhment, are candidly and ably anfwered." In short, it is not (I repeat) that "we prefumptuously conclude, with cer"tainty, that our own form of religion "is the beft; but we are of opinion, "that, in every well-regulated ftate, "one alone fhould be encouraged; all fhould be made as cafy as poffible, " but one alone fhould be entrusted with power. Whenever, then, it fhall be found that Calvinifm, Armi"nianifm, Socinianifm, or the perfua"fion of any other fetaries, is adopted "for the majority of the people, it will "be high time that what is now called "the National Religion fhould be dif "placed, and the more popular faith " erected in its ftead: let the members "of that faith alone be admitted to re"fponfible fituations, civil or military; "but let what is now called the Church "of England, in common with the "other inferior fects, enjoy that cafe "and fecurity which the now fo libe"rally extends to all others."
160. Obfervations on the Rev. Dr. Hurd's (now. Bishop of Worcester) Two Dialogues on the Conftitution of the English Government; addreffed in a Letter to Edinund Burke, Ejq. THE Letter to Mr. Burke, which makes near half the pamphlet, being little more than declamatory abufe of him for his ariftocratical expreffion of his difapproval of the French revolution, which is conftrued as implying that he knows neither the intention nor value of the English revolution, we fhall proceed to the Obfervations, which
kind to Dr. Price, reviewed p. 348; where, p. 20, it is thus defined: "a diforder to which even minds of confiderable strength, "and fouls of the utmost integrity, have "fometimes been found liable. It has been "often particularly prevalent in this country, "where, poffeffing the reality of public li"berty, we cannot cafily refine beyond it "without proceeding to a dangerous excefs. "Of this fanaticifm it is, I think, an infalli "ble fymptom to judge ill of the governing "power, without any, or at least without ☀ any fufficient, cause.”
are not lefs virulent against the Bishop of Worcester.
The Obferver fays, p. 3, "War is "certainly not the ftate of Nature." Is there then a fet of human beings on this globe in a ftate of Nature? or is there a nation, or fociety of men, exempt from war? Shall we not feek Nature and Liberty, with reasonable hope of finding them, in Otaheite and Pelew? and fhall we not find war in both? That war is the ftate of Nature, we can prove from the whole animal creation, whose interefts and impulfes lead to hoftility. By whatever door evil came into the world, war came in with it, and has prevailed in fociety ever fince.
"We derive all our most valuable "privileges and immunities, except "thofe which the Revolution bleffed us "with, from the freedom of our Saxon "and British ancestors, who knew, fays "Lord Bolingbroke, the ends of go"vernment, and obliged their governors "to purfue thofe ends; who, Cæfar ac"knowledged, fought boldly for their "liberties, and wifely held, as Dion "Caffius records, a great part of the
government in their own hands; for "the Saxon conftitution was greatly de"mocratical." Here a little attention to original writers is worth all the affertions of Lord Bolingbroke, or a fervile admiffion of them. One would be glad to find the paffage where Cæfar makes this acknowledginent, that the Britons fought boldly for their liberties,-except that they fought, as all nations under every form of government do, to repel invaders; for their fighting among themselves was only faction, and the jealousy one ftate harboured against another: and as to their moral liberty of action, Cæfar gives a bleffed account of their promifcuous concubinage, which is confirmed by Dion Caffius (LXXXII. 12); who, when he fays dnpongalovviaı ως πληθεί, adds, και ληςεύουσιν ηδιςα. "The people govern for the most part, "and they rob fweetly;" which is just the character of the prefent French.Wherein the democracy of the Saxons for the conftitution was not fettled in confifted, we fhall be puzzled to learn; the Heptarchy. In the long and happy days of Alfred we find no fuch thing, nor in the forty years reign of Offa in Mercia. Rapin (I. 79) indeed intimates, that the Saxons in Germany were divided into twelve governments, or provinces, each of which had a chief or head, accountable to the general af
"Stuarts." The Moral and Political Dialogues are fuppofed to have been lectures for a royal pupil. The civil and canon law are reprefented as contrary to the fpirit of the Saxon or origi nal English conftitution; and the Bishop is charged with an error refpecting the law of the Conqueror, to remove the clergy out of the lay courts; which really, as Nathaniel Bacon obferves, only "feparated the laity out of the fpi"ritual courts, and not the clergy out
fembly of the nation; and the general in war was only like the Roman dictator, for the occafion. The authors of the Parliamentary History (I. 3,4) could find no traces of the Commons afhting at the Wittenagemot, or Affembly of Wife Men; but, on the contrary, they were in a state of abfolute dependence till fome time after the Conqueft. Mr. Walpole fomewhere obferves, that a Mercian antiquary fees a Wittenagemot in every molehill. So the advocates of Liberty fee the Commons in every Wit" of the lay courts."-Henry I recalled tenagemot.
But our obferver is prepared to give up uncertain facts; for he will even give up all facts, and confeiles "the weight of facts is against him every "where, even in the hiftoric page of "England." But there is no neceffity, we may affure ourselves, to plead prefcription in fupport of the right of mankind. Was Liberty but a day "old, nay, had it never exifted, we have as full and as abfolute right to "the enjoyment of it as if it had been eftablished and delivered down to us, "pure and unfuified, from the remoteft ages." p. 7. Boldly advanced! After this, it is unneceflary to read further. It is condefcendingly admitted, in favour of the Nonjuring Clergy at the Revolution, that," when one king was turned out, they were loth to go farther, and "receive and obey another, quem populus elegerat, who therefore could not "claim the crown by an indefeafible "and divine hereditary right." But on whom did this popular election fall? Was it not on the hufband of the heir apparent? The fucceffion, therefore, was not violated; the crown was not offered to any foreign potentate, nor was it propofed to elevate any private nobleman or gentleman to the throne, with all the freedom of election.
The grand objection to the Bishop's fyftem is, that it afferts "the liberty of the fubject arofe from the very nature "of the feudal fyftem, which, it is faid, "is properly the English conftitution, "and which, as laid in the feudal te"nures, was effentially free; and that "this, as a fact, is the beft fecurity of "the fyftem eftablished at the Revolu "tion," that, "fo far from condemn
the clergy to their attendance under the antient Saxon law; and Henry II. compelled their fervices, as well as their attendance, in right of their baronies.
Our oblerver, in complaining (p. 63) that the feudal fyftem "confounded the "rights of Nature by its effential claim of primogeniture," forgets to what dreadful inconveniences the decrees of the National Affembly have, in this in ftance, fubjected the people by fetting it afide. The Bishop himself is aware of the objection to the feudal fyftem; but our obferver's greateft antipathy to it is founded on its being military, and favouring oligarchy; and " was even
"Rome free under the Patrician au"thority?" p. 69. In the name of all that is facred, what was Rome under the Plebeian authority? what under the Vetos of the Tribunes of the people? what in the operation of the Agrarian laws? But the independence of the people is the favourite maxim of this writer.
He thinks the Bishop's argu. ment, that the English people had a right to, and enjoyed, their liberty becaufe they were jealous of it, goes too far, and would as well prove that all their kings, at least in early times, had a right to, and poffeffed, defpotic power, "This mode of argument refembles the "crede quod babes et habes, so usually "applied to palliate and maintain the "doctrine of tranfubftantiation in the "Church of Rome, and which does "palliate and maintain that very doc"trine, as it appears even in the Eftab "lished Church of England." Surely our obferver's affertion, in this laft inftance, proves too much.
"The last remains of the feudal fyf"tem were at length abolished at the "Reftoration, after a violent and bloody "conteft, to which its adopted, or ra"ther its effential, principles had given "the greatest occafion; and even then, "it may be obferved, an ample price "was paid for its total annihilation, its