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Mr. URBAN,

Auguft 12.

UPON the recent election of a Parliament you may, perhaps, deem it uteful information to lay before the publick in general, and the new fenators in particular, the following STATE OF THE NATION. Population of Great Britain, viz. England and Wales *

Scotland

8,000,000

1,500,000

Number of the Houfe of Commons
Number of perfons to each member of parliament; or, in other words,
each member of parliament represents †
Number of active citizens, or fighting-men, between 16 and 60 years
of age, one-fourth of the whole

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Number of active citizens to each member of parliament

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England & Wales contain fquare miles, according to the Statistical Tables
Number of perfons to each fquare mile

Scotland contains fquare miles

Number of perfons to each fquare mile

9,500,000

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Great Britain contains fquare miles

or fquare acres

Number of perfons to each fquare mile, or 5 acres per head§
The neat produce of the taxes on the average of three years, from

the 5th April, 1787, to the 5th April, 1790 £. 15,846,000 Add 8 per cent. for charges of collection

1,267,680 The grofs revenue of Great Britain, befide tythes, parish and county-rates, &c. &c.

So that each individual pays to the ftate, on an average, out of
his income, or the produce of his labour

But, if paid by the active citizens, it is a head by the year
The capital of the national debt, exclufive of annuities for lives
and years, is about

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Upon the notion that the land is ultimately charged to pay the national debt, every square mile is mortgaged for

or every fquare acre is mortgaged for

The intereft of the funded debt, including the annuities and charges of management, is

Towards this, every fquare mile

or every fquare acte

or every individual

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on an average con-
tributes annually

51,015,680

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Suppofing the average rent of lands to be ten fhillings an acre, and that they now fell for about 30 years purchase, every acre is mortgaged for almost one-third of its intrinfic value, and pays more than that proportion of its annual rent to the intereft of the national debt.

I have not made thefe calculations to create difcontents or defpondency; for I be-. lieve that the fame fort of enquiries, with regard to other kingdoms, would thew that, notwithstanding our burthens appear heavy, we are not in a worfe condition, than our neighbours. By this view of our affairs, I mean only to flimulate our Minilters and Senators to purfue the wifelt measures for ftrengthening this country,

* Mr. Howlet, in the year 1781, computed the prefent inhabitants of England and Wales' to be very kitle less than nine millions. Sir William Petty and Dr. Davenant stated them at feven millions about roo years ago; and Mr. King calculated that the increafe on that nunber in reo years ought to be 930,000; this gives 8,000,000 nearly at this time.

tin France, the future number of the National Affembly has been fately fixed at 747* perfons; fo that each member will reprefent. 32,128 fouls, or 8,032 active citizens.

$54,112 fquare miles give only 34,0;1,630 fquare acres. This does not greatly difer from Templeman; but Dr. Halley, D: Davenant, and Mr. King, eijunited that England and Wales contained 39,000,000 geographical fquare acres, or at least 60,037 iquare miles. If their effimates are correct, it will make fome alteration in fuch of the abaye calculations as depend upon the number of acres or miles. Dr. Grew has demonftrated that South Bri-" Lain contains 72,000 statute miles, or 46,08.,000 ftatute acret.

In the United Provinces there are about three acres per head; fo that the population of Great Britain muft ipcrease to 17,00,0cc fouls to equal that of Holl nd; which will require 70 years, according to Mr. King's calculation, of about one million increate in every hundred years, uniefs it thould be accelerated by a general natur.dization.

In the year 1688, the average rent of lands was computed to be 65. zd, an acre.

by

by thrift in the public treafure, by care of the people's trade, and by all the other honeft and useful arts of peace.

It is not extent of territory that makes a country powerful, but numbers of men well employed, convenient ports, a good navy, and a foil producing all forts of commodities. The materials for all thefe we have; and, to improve them to the greatest advantage, we only want the complement of men whom our land can maintain and nourish, with as much trade as our national ftock and our know ledge of fea affairs is capable of embrace ing. A trade fo extended will naturally produce a powerful naval ftrength; while a large and well-directed traffick, by its balance in our favour, will furnish fuch ftores and wealth as will enable us to bear our prefent load of debt until the plan for the reduction of it shall have taken good root; and then the progrefs of that plan will proceed more rapidly than can easily be conceived by thole who have not been ufed to contemplate the powers of com pound intereft.

Mr. URBAN,

M. W.

July 29.

INDULGE me with room for a few remarks upon one of the moft generous and public-fpirited inflitutions that ever took place in this or in any other country; I mean the ROYAL HUMANE SOCIETY for reftoring life to those who have been feemingly deprived of it by drowning, hanging, fuifocation, and a variety of other caules. It is not, I zhink, above ferenteen years fince this Society was firft formed in England; and yet, during that fhort time, it has been the happy means of preterving the lives of above two thoufand perfons, who would otherwife have been committed to an untimely grave: for it is a melancholy, but, at the fame time, an undoubted truth, that, till the difcovery of this noble art, every perfon, in whom the vital powers had once cealed to operate, was contidered as totally and ine coverably dead. The cafe, however, is now very different; for numbers are by this meaus restored to life, their friends, and families, who would. formerly been thought to have palled into that country, "from whofe bourn," as the poet exproffes it, no traveller retains."

The bleffed effects of thus revivifying art are too many and valious to come within the comp fs of a thout letter. I shall content my felf at prefent with mentioning only a few of them,

In the fit place, then, to view the atter in a political light. If the life of

every adult perfon be, as the most accu rate calculation fuppofes it, worth 100l. a year to the Government, preferving the lives of two thoufand men is making a prefent to the publick of 200,000, that is, the intereft of four millions of money; and it is certain that the Miniftry is frequently diftreffed for a much lefs fum.

Confidering the matter, therefore, in this point of view, it is really surprising that none of our Minifters have ever had the courage (for one must not accuse them of want of humanity, as many of them are known to encourage privately, and individually, what they have not the boldnefs to fupport openly and officially), it is really furprifing, I fay, that none of our Minifters have ever had the courage to introduce a bill into either Houfe of Parliament, for extending the protection of Government to a Society that is fo mas nitetily calculated to increase the num bers of the people, and confequently to add to the wealth and revenue of the state.

But to view the matter merely in a political light, is confidering it in a very cold and uninterefting manner; though this, I am afraid, is the only light in

which many hard-hearted fiatefmen are

but too apt to view it. The Philanthropift, however, regards the Humane Society with other eyes, and with very different lentiments. He looks upon it as an admirable inflitution for ftrengthening all the finer feelings and affections of the human mind, for drawing clofer thofe delicate links and chains that unite mankind together in the various relations of husband and wife, of parent and child, of brother and fifter: in a word, he contiders it as having a manifeft tendency to improve the morals, at the fame time that it preferves the lives, of the human fpecies. And in this affecting, and let me add) this rational and philofophical light, it is to be hoped, the Legislature itfelf will at length view it. If they do not, they will foon find that it is vain for them to be making laws for the fupport of Government; no government, at leaft no free government, could ever be long fupported where the morals of the pec ple are become thoroughly depravedQuid vane fine moribus leges proficiunt? And thoroughly depraved the morals of the English will foon become, it care is not taken to cultivate among them alt the more humane and tender virtues. And what virtue can be more humane and tender than that which is exerted in reftoring life to thote who have been unhappily deprived of it by any of the cafu alties incident toour precarious flate? C.A.

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JOHN HOWARD Efq! F.R. S (Taken from Nature. March

1788.

LA

Mr. URBAN, Dublin, June 1. AMENTING with you, in the most Wfincere grief, for the general misfortune of lofing our late worthy and amiable friend, JOHN HOWARD, Efq. whofe well-known philanthropy of mind and goodness of heart were equally extended to every climate; being in poffeilion of a few authentic papers relative to the lofs of a charitable donation of this gentleman's to a very useful hofpital in this city; and not knowing fo proper a conveyance to the public eye as your excellent monthly repofitory, to do juftice to the memory of my departed friend; here inclofe you the original letters paffed on that occafion, together with a pencilled likeness of the Author of the "State of Prifons in Europe," which, I pledge myfelf to you, was drawn from the life (unknown to Mr. Howard) while at my house, by a young but ingenious artist.

Yours, &c. HIBERNICUS.

Dublin, March 24, 1788. MR. HOWARD orders Mr. Willfon to fell his first edition of the "State of the Prifons in England and Wales," with an Appendix to each, both of which books are bound

in boards, at the original price in London,
viz. fourteen fhillings English, two of which
is for the binding of them; and all the pam-
phlets on the Bastille to be fold at fix pence
English: and that the money arifing from the
fale of these books and pamphlets, after the
expence of carriage or freight, and the cuf-
tomary commiffion for the fale thereof, be
deducted, the balance to be paid to the trea-
furer of Mercer's Hofpital, for the use of the
faid charity, a duplicate of this being left in the
hands of the treasurer. JOHN HOWARD.
SIR,
London, Plough Court, Fetter Lane,
March 24, 1788.
I RECEIVED a letter from Mr. Howard,
which informs me, that a cafe of books that
he directed me to fend to you laft September
has not come to hand. He defires me to fend
you the particulars how and when they were
hipped; which are as follow: they were
fhipped on board the Recovery, Capt. Wa-
tered, or Walkered (the receipt that I have
for the delivery not being plainly wrote, I
cannot afcertain pofitively the captain's name);
but the perfon who received the cafe of books
for the captain, and gave the receipt, his name
was Fergutton, and was chief-mate of the
fhip. He received them on the 14th day of
September, 1787. The thip, I know, was

detained fome weeks in the river after the
was ready for failing, owing to the late prefs
for feamen. Some time after the failed, I
faw an account in the London papers of a
Thip of the fame name, bound for Dublin,
being wrecked; I hope it was not her. I
GENT. MAG. Auguft, 1790,

have Ferguson's receipt by me; if it will be of use to you, I will fend it. I am, Sir, your very humble fervant, J. LOVEJOY. Mr. Wilfon, Bookfeller, Dame Street, Dublin. SIR, Dublin, March 27, 1788. 1 HAVE just received Mr. Lovejoy your book-binder's letter of the 24th inftant, by which I regret to find that your humane intention of ferving Mercer's Hofpital is fruftrated, by reafon, to a certainty, of your books being put on board the Recovery, William Withered, mafter, from London to this city; which fhip I reprefented to you when in town was loft fome months ago off Wicklow Head. I am still more concerned at this

misfortune, as it deprives me of the means of fhewing you, and the governors of that hofpital, that it was not my intention to make any charge whatfoever for my trouble of difpofing of thofe copies of your "State of the Prifons in Europe," intended for that charity. Be affured that I fhall, at all times, be particularly happy to pay every poffible attention to your commands.

I am, Sir, with much refpect, your most obedient fervant, WILLIAM WILSON. John Howard, Efq. Limerick.

Mr. URBAN,

Aug. 2. Nanfwer to one of your Bermudian correfpondent's queftions (p. 610), I beg leave to inform him, that the Jamaica Vegetable Soap is prepared from the great American Aloe, or Coratoe (Agave Americana, Linn.), in the following manner.

The large fucculent leaves being cut, are patled between the rollers of a mill, being conducted into wide, shallow rewith their point foremoft; and the juice ceivers, through a coarse cloth, or ftrainer, lies expofed to a hot fun, till it is reduced to a thick confiftence. It is then made up into balls, with lye-athes, after which, it may be kept for years, to prevent it from sticking to the fingers; and ferve for ufe, as well as Cattile foap, in wafhing linen: but it has the fuperior quality of mixing and forming a lather with falt water as well as freth.

is, by curting the leaves in pieces, poundAnother method of preparing this foap ing them in a large wooden mortar, and then exprefling the juice, which is brought afterwards to a confiftence, cither by the fun, or by boiling. One gallon of juice thus prepared will yield about one pound, avoirdupoife, of a foft extract. It will anlwer prepared in either of thefe ways, provided the juice, before expofure to the fun or fire, be very carefully trained from the bruifed fibres, and outer membrane of the leaves.

The

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