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than five-sixths of the total cost of maintaining the higher schools were expended in payment of teachers' salaries.

In the Empire.

Expense per

The average expense per pupil in the higher schools of. Prussia was 62.5 marks in 1871; in 1892 it was 184.3 marks. The total expense per thousand of the population for the support of the higher schools was 301.1 marks in 1871, and 1,032.2 marks in 1892. In the meantime there has been a growth of but four per cent. in the population of Prussia. In the face of such proof no words need be wasted in adducing evidence of Prussia's interest in secondary education.

The Report of the Schul-Deputation of Berlin for 1893-1894 gives a good idea of the cost of the city schools. There was an attendance of 4,107 pupils in 114 classes of School Expenses the 11 Realschulen; and in these schools 162 regular and 51 special teachers were employed.

in Berlin.

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The six Höhere Mädchenschulen had an attendance in 1893-1894 of 4,297, divided among 95 classes and in charge of 132 teachers. The total income was 410,334 marks, of which 407,715 marks came from tuition fees. The ordinary expenses were 484,648 marks; supply teachers, 2,331 marks; religious instruction for non-protestants, 6,480 marks; printing annual announcements, 1,247 marks; building and re

pairs, 13,141 marks; supervision of play - grounds, 1,832 marks. This gave a total expense of 509,679 marks, and left a deficit of 99,345 marks to be borne by the city.

Berlin City

School System.

The city of Berlin also supports 201 clementary schools, a school for the blind, a school for the deaf, and several nineyear higher schools which are under the jurisdiction of the provincial school-board. The cost to the city in 1893-1894 of the schools under the administration of the Schul-Deputation-making allowances for items placed in two accounts-may be summarized as follows:

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Berlin is exceptionally liberal in the support of girls' schools, but Americans or Englishmen will find it hard to understand the reason for expending 150,000 marks more.on the boys than on the girls, when the girls pay nearly twice as much in fees as the boys pay. But girls grow only into women; boys become citizens and soldiers.

General RefeRENCES:-Wiese, Das höhere Schulwesen in Preussen; Wiese-Kübler, Gesetze und Verordnungen; Rethwisch, Deutschlands höheres Schulwesen im neunzehnten Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1893; Kehrbach, Monumenta Germaniæ Pædagogica, Vols. I., IV., and VIII.; Statistisches Jahrbuch der höheren Schulen Deutschlands, 1897-1898; Centralblatt für die gesammte Unterrichts- Verwaltung in Preussen. Berlin. See also Bibliography of recent works, p. 455.

The School-Year.



THE school-year in Prussia and in the other northern and central German states is from Easter to Easter, the semesters beginning at Easter and Michaelmas. Large institutions with parallel classes from top to bottom frequently admit new pupils both in the spring and in the fall. This gives them two sets of classes a half-year apart-the one designated Easter classes (OsterOberprima, Oster-Untersecunda, etc.); the other Michaelmas classes. But in Baden, Alsace-Lorraine and Würtemberg the school-year begins the middle of September and extends to the middle of July; in Bavaria from the 10th of September to the 14th of July.


The historic connection of church and school is clearly evidenced in the modern custom of having school vacations at the time of the chief church festivals. In Prussia and most of the northern states two weeks are given at Easter, about one week at Whitsunday, four weeks in the summer-mostly in July-two weeks at Michaelmas, and two weeks at Christmas. Bavaria has no vacation at Whitsunday, and only one week at Christmas. This makes possible eight weeks of rest in the summer. The precise dates of vacations are set by the school authorities in each state at the beginning of each school-year. The convenience of the scholars and avoidance of the neat of summer are the main considerations. In northern Germany it is no hardship to continue school work into August; the universities uniformly require it. In South Germany the heat is

more intense and of longer duration. But everywhere it is left to the discretion of head-masters to excuse classes when from excessive heat or cold some injury might result to the pupils. Most schools, on this account, are closed afternoons four or five times in the summer.

The general ministerial orders are to the effect that the year's vacations should not exceed ten and one-half weeks, exclusive of special holidays, such as the church festivals of Epiphany, Candlemas, Annunciation, Corpus Christi, PeterPaulstag (June 29th), All Saints, Conception of the Virgin (December 8th)-all of which are observed in Roman Catholic schools; the Reformationsfest, which is observed in all protestant schools; the birthdays of the reigning sovereigns, Sedan day, and school celebrations.

Daily Sessions.

The morning session in the secondary schools begins regularly at seven o'clock during the summer and closes at eleven. In the afternoons, except Wednesdays and Saturdays, which are entirely free, the session is from two to five. During the winter the morning session begins at eight o'clock and continues until twelve. This gives seven fifty-five minute periods a day besides intermissions. The long afternoon session is much disliked; and in many schools there is a disposition to lengthen the morning session and do all of the heavy work before noon, thus leaving for afternoon the lighter work such as drawing, singing, gymnastics and free electives. The school authorities, however, are not disposed to favour this plan, believing that continuous work for five hours makes too serious demands upon the strength of the scholars. As a result compromises are frequent. For example, the Thomasschule in Leipsic leaves four afternoons of the week practically free, following five hours of work in the morning. On the other two days there are four hours of work in the morning and three in the afternoon, beginning at three o'clock. The city Gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Main makes Wednesday, Friday and Saturday afternoons free, following five hours of work in the morning.


It is required that at least forty minutes of the day shall be given up to pauses. Ordinary pauses are five minutes, but one of fifteen minutes' duration must be given at the end of every second hour. During the longer intermissions all scholars must leave the rooms so that there may be a thorough ventilation by the opening of the windows. Pupils generally pass out into the school-yards during the longer intermissions, where they walk about spending the time in conversation. Seldom, indeed, is it that one sees any games or play indulged in. Teachers are appointed for the supervision of the corridors and school-grounds as regularly as for class recitations. This is the more necessary inasmuch as teachers exercise no supervision in their own rooms or classes. In fact, the rooms belong to the classes, not to the teachers; it is only for drawing, singing and science work that the class seeks the teacher. At assembly, order is expected upon the ringing of a warning bell; the second bell is the signal for the entrance of the teacher, who generally spends the intermission in the teachers' assembly-room. As he appears the class immediately rises and remains standing until the command to sit down is given. This little act of courtesy does not seem to be performed perfunctorily and is so much a matter of habit that classes instinctively stand when anyone enters the room, no matter if a recitation be in progress. Teachers seldom occupy their class-rooms during intermission. Pupils who desire special information must make known their wants before the class is dismissed, or else seek the teacher during office hours. The teacher is generally the first one out of the room.

Home Study.

The consequence of the rigid class system in vogue in all German secondary schools is that each pupil has a lesson every hour of the school-day. No time for study is allowed during the school hours, and it is an easy matter for teachers to assign so much work to be done at home that the strength of the pupils may be overtaxed. For more than fifty years this problem of the overburdening of scholars has been uppermost in the minds of

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