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names are inscribed on the list of teachers eligible to appointment in the higher schools of the province. Their period of probation is finished; they have only to wait a few years before beginning their life work. This work, once begun and attended to with reasonable diligence, will insure them a competency for the rest of their days. It is a slow process, but sure. The end, however, is a desirable one both for the teachers and for the state.

General REFERENCES:-Fries, Die Vorbildung der Lehrer für das Lehramt, Vol. II., Pt. I., of Baumeister's Handbuch. (This comprehensive study was not published in time to be of service in the preparation of this chapter; I specially commend it to those who are interested in the training of teachers for secondary schools.-J. E. R.); Loos, Die praktischpädagogische Vorbildung in Deutschland, Zeitschrift für österr. Gym., Vienna, 1893; Schiller, Die pädagogische Vorbildung der Gymnasiallehrer, address before the 41st Philologenversammlung (gives the Giessen plan); Frick, Pädagogische und didaktische Abhandlungen-Das Seminarium præceptorum, Halle, 1893; Rein, Aus dem pädagogischen Universitäts-Seminar zu Jena, Langensalza; Zange, Gymnasialseminare und die pädagogische Ausbildung der Kandidaten des höheren Schulamtes, Halle, 1890; Beyer, Zur Errichtung Pädagogischer Lehrstuhle an unseren Universitäten, Langensalza, 1895; Windscheid, Das Lehrerinnenbildungs- und Prüfungswesen, in Wychgram's Handbuch des höheren Mädchenschulwesens, Leipsic, 1897; Schiller, Praktische Pädagogik; Schrader, Erziehungs- und Unterrichtslehre, Berlin, 1893; Encyclopedias of Schmid and Rein. And see Bibliography, p. 455, Nos. 1h, 2, 4.


Regulations adopted in 1898 prescribe the following subjects for examination: (1) General test-philosophy, pedagogy and German literature -also for members of Christian churches, religion; (2) Special testChristian religion, philosophical propedeutic, German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, English, history, geography, pure mathematics, applied mathematics, physics, chemistry, including mineralogy, botany and zoology, and Polish and Danish (for certain candidates only). No grouping of subjects is officially made, as formerly, except that in certain subjects the following combinations must be made: Latin and Greek, French and English, history and geography, religion and Hebrew, pure mathematics and physics, chemistry and either physics or botany and zoölogy. German may be substituted for Latin, French, Hebrew, or history in the above combinations. Only two grades of certificates are now recognized: Erste Stufe entitles the candidate to teach the subject in any class; Zweite Stufe is good only in the lower classes up to and including Untersecunda. See Beier, Die höheren Schulen in Preussen und ihre Lehrer, for recent official regulations,





CANDIDATES for teachers' positions in the higher schools who have successfully passed the state examination and completed the prescribed course of professional Appointment of training make formal application to the Provincial-Schulcollegium in the province where they wish to teach. In case several applicants have completed their trial year at the same time, priority is determined by the dates of the state examination. This fact is of great importance, inasmuch as teachers are appointed to permanent positions in government schools in order of seniority as determined by the official list. Each candidate, it is to be noted, is certificated only in certain subjects and for definite grades. As vacancies occur in the state schools, appointments are necessarily made from those possessing the requisite qualifications.

Method of Procedure.

This method of appointment was especially emphasized in the Berlin Conference of 1890 as the only satisfactory mode of checking favouritism. The plan has its advantages; it also has its defects. For example, it may happen that well-qualified men, polished gentlemen, will be sent to comparatively unimportant positions, while men of less merit fall into more desirable and more exacting berths. It is always possible, however, for a candidate to surrender his chance to the man next in order, and still retain his place at the head of the list. On the other hand, if a candidate refuses an appointment once it has been

made, he may be set back six months, put at the foot of the list or dismissed altogether, at the discretion of the provincial school-board. Such an extremity, however, is usually avoided by a little foresight on the part of the Oberschulrat. A candidate holding the first place on the list may be advised by the inspector to retire in favour of the next in line, whenever it seems desirable that the first eligible candidate should not be appointed to a particular position. For In Royal Schools. example, A and B, ranking respectively first

and second in the official list, are both qualified in the major subject required to fill a vacancy existing at some important place. The inspector knows that a place much more suited to A is likely to become vacant in a few months; he advises A accordingly to give way to B, who is immediately appointed to the inferior position. If B refuses to accept, he will be set back far enough to give no trouble for some time to come. Indirectly, therefore, the inspectors have considerable power in placing men; they use it freely to advance the interests of the best candidates and the most progressive schools. It is always the senior candidate's right, however, to demand appointment to the first position falling vacant for which his credentials qualify him. Once on the official list, nothing but gross negligence can prevent his ultimate appointment to some position.

In City Schools.

Teachers in higher schools, of whatsoever kind, must be selected from the provincial list. Vacancies in state schools must be filled in order of seniority, as described above; but city schools and others under special patronage are free to select from the list regardless of order.1 The local board nominates a candidate for a vacancy, and asks the approval of the provincial inspectors. This granted, the appointment is made in regular fashion. Herein again the inspector shows his power. By refusing to confirm a nomination made by a local board, and forcing, if needs be, a series of choices, the government can determine, indirectly at least, the character of the teaching force in schools not immediately under its jurisdiction. It must be conceded, however, that

"Six highest on the list "-Regulation of April, 1898, Beier, p. 417.

the privilege allowed to the local boards of selecting teachers at will from the eligible list tends to take the best teachers away from the state schools. The cities generally pay larger salaries and take younger men-all of which is a great inducement to eager candidates. But many teachers prefer to wait their turn for appointment to a state school, because of the greater dignity attached to the government service. The civil servant enjoys a certain rank at court, and has the proud satisfaction of knowing that no favouritism or political bias enters into his appointment.

All definitely appointed teachers are required to take the oath of office, which is administered by the directors of the state schools or by the local magistracy in behalf

Oath of Office. of city schools. By order of 1848, it runs as follows: "I swear to God the Almighty and Omniscient after I have been installed as. be submissive, loyal and obedient to His Royal Majesty, King of Prussia, my most gracious lord, to fulfil all the duties of my office according to the best of my knowledge and belief, and also faithfully to observe the constitution. So help me God." The ceremony closes with a formal handshake, whereupon the person is installed in the service of the crown. But lest he forget his professional duties, a special ministerial rescript reminds him that "the teacher in a public school must possess both the intellectual and moral strength which enables him to be an example in all respects to his pupils. He should recognise no higher duty than with fidelity to his self-chosen profession to avoid in instruction and association with his pupils all that might tend to disturb the natural and sound development of youth, all that cannot be conceived and rightly judged by youth, all that might tend to displace right religious feelings or reverence for what is noble and good."

The intending teacher in Germany does not expect a speedy appointment to a governmental post. In fact, he expects to wait years for it. The certificated candidates who received appointments in the province of Hesse-Nassau in 1894 had

Waiting for Appointment.

waited already an average of six years since the expiration of their respective trial years. The same test applied to other provinces gives the following results: Brandenburg, 8 years; Hanover, 5.5 years; Saxony, 3.5 years; Silesia, 7.5 years; Posen, 5.4 years; West Prussia, 8.1 years; Westphalia, 4.4 years; SchleswickHolstein, 4.2 years; Rhine Province, 3.8 years. This makes an average period of waiting for the average candidate of 5.6 years.1

The variation in the several provinces is due to the relative desirability of positions, the number of city schools, condition of social life as determined by large cities and Causes of Delay. personal reasons. Candidates are free to make application for a place in the official list of any province, but they are not permitted to register in more than one. Some provinces, therefore, have more eligible candidates than others; some have been so unpopular at times as not to have candidates enough to fill their vacancies. But the ministry now reserves to itself the right to permit voluntary transfers from one province to another, and in case of necessity arbitrarily to equalize the lists. Eligible candidates from other states may also be assigned by the ministry to particular prov inces. A candidate who leaves his province without permission, or accepts a permanent appointment to a school not under royal patronage, or engages in an employment not approved by the authorities, loses thereby his place in the eligible list.

An unfortunate combination of subjects in which a candidate is certificated may long defer promotion. According to the list of certificated candidates in Hesse-Nassau, above re

1 Statistics for the first half of the year 1897 show that in the province of Brandenburg, in which the city of Berlin is situated, twelve permanent appointments were made. The waiting periods were respectively 11, 10.5, 10, 9.25, 9, 8.5, 8, 8, 7.5, 7.5, 6 and 5.5 years-average, 8.33 years. The ages of the teachers thus first appointed to their life work were respectively 36, 34, 42, 41, 41, 36, 35, 38, 43, 33, 36 and 31 years.-Pädagogisches Archiv, Vol. XXXIX., p. 176.

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