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because of the increase in the number of hours given to German, the Reform-Schule becomes an institution resting on a modern basis, and meets the needs of the times for an education more independent of the ancient languages. The spirit of the school must be nourished by the life surrounding us, with whose changing tides the principles of education vary; but for the success of all instruction faith in the utility and necessity of the knowledge acquired is of the greatest significance.' The new school believes in connecting the present with the historic past."1

Spread of the Reform-School.

It is easy to detect in this announcement the mingling of politics, expediency and pedagogy. But what the people really want they will some time get, in Germany as elsewhere. It matters not that the old party predict the failure of the new school on a priori grounds; the trial is being made with the consent of the government. In one form or another, it is being tried in Altona, Frankfort, Güstrow, Magdeburg, Essen, Iserlohn, Hildesheim, Harburg, Osnabrück, Lippstadt, Bremen, Breslau, Hanover, Schöneburg, Charlottenburg, in the French Gymnasium of Berlin and in the Realgymnasium of Carlsruhe. If the experiment is a failure, it will be because the task is an impossible one. The first real test will come in 1901, when the first graduates from the Frankfort schools will have a chance to demonstrate their knowledge of Greek and Latin side by side with those who complete the regular course. It is dangerous to venture a prediction as to the final outcome of the present struggle; but to a person with a democratic turn of mind, one of two possible solutions seems inevitable: either Greek will be made optional, or the gymnasial monopoly will be broken down. If additional privileges are given to the Real-schools, Greek may be preserved in its integrity for many years to come; if six years of Greek must continue to bar the way to

The Outlook.

1 Jahresbericht des städtischen Leibniz-Realgymnasium zu Hannover,


professional life, then Greek will eventually become what it was before 1810-a dead weight in the curriculum. An American or an Englishman, with his national predilection for freedom, finds it almost inconceivable that the Frankfort plan should fail; it is essentially that which we ourselves are rapidly coming to believe in. The first three years, in which the course is common to all, are our grammar-school" grades; the upper six classes differentiate along the "classical," the "Latin-scientific" and the "scientific" lines. But the German mind is not democratic; it is monarchical, and accepts class distinctions. The old gymnasial course is the aristocratic course, and the privileged classes are determined to keep it so. The Gymnasium-or, rather, its sapporters-is largely at fault for the growth of social democracy; but not, as the emperor thought, because it is doing so much, but because of what it is not doing. It will not grant that freedom of choice, variety in education and equal opportunity for all, which modern life demands. I have more faith in modern ideals-even in Germany-than I have in German bureaucracy. The bane of the German schools is the system of privileges. When that is abolished, humanism and classical education of the right sort will flourish as never before.

GENERAL REFERENCES: - Verhandlungen über Fragen des höheren Unterrichts, Berlin, 1891; Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts (new edition, last chapter)-Das Realgymnasium und die humanistische Bildung, Berlin, 1889; Über die gegenwärtige Lage des höheren Schulwesens in Preussen, Berlin, 1893; Ziegler, Die Fragen der Schulreform, Stuttgart; Notwendigkeit und Berechtigung des Realgymnasiums, Stuttgart, 1894; Bahnsch, Der Streit um den griechischen Sprachunterricht, Dantzic, 1893; Ohlert, Die deutsche höhere Schule, Hanover, 1896; Wernicke, Kultur und Schule, Osterwieck-Harz, 1896; Münch, Neue pädagogische Beitrage, Berlin, 1893; Frick, Die Einheit der Schule— Möglichkeit der höheren Einheitsschulen in Päd. und didak. Abhandlungen, Halle, 1893; Rein, Am Ende der Schulreform? Langensalza, 1893 (gives bibliography down to 1893); Das humanistische Gymnasium; Zeitschrift für das Gymnasialwesen; Central-Organ für die Interessen des Realschulwesens. See Bibliography, p. 455.





THE two dominant forces in the later development of the German school system have proceeded from the State and the University. The one has made the system; Two Dominant the other, the school. Whatever merits or defects are discernible, therefore, in German secondary education, aside from those due to local influences, which might arise anywhere and under almost any circumstances, can be traced to one or both of these sources. In their tendencies these forces are radically different; it is an opposition of the centripetal and the centrif1. The State. ugal. The state is authoritative, autocratic, conservative; the university is free, liberal and democratic. The university embodies the highest ideals of the spiritual life and culture of the German people; the

2. The University. state represents their genius for self-control,

organization and government. It is at once the strength and the weakness of the school system that it is the resultant of several forces.

a Power.

In ascribing to the state so large a share of honor in the development of secondary education, I do not mean to discredit the influence of the Church. Until the The Church also present century the church was practically in supreme control. But since the Napoleonic Wars, the state has superseded the church in the management of school affairs. The spiritual leadership of the church is perhaps as strongly marked now as ever, but it is maintained

indirectly through the good offices of the state and university. The university provides for the theological training of intending teachers; the state prescribes the course of religious instruction in the schools.

Service of the


It is not too much to say that without the fostering care of the state the present efficiency of secondary education could hardly have been attained. The state compels parents to send their children to school, provides ample means for their instruction, cares for their physical well-being, directs their course of training and sets standards for promotion and graduation; it has perfected an organization which permits a high degree of central control, and yet allows considerable freedom in the local direction of school affairs; it insists on high scholarship, thorough professional training and pedagogical skill from all its teachers; it recognises a teaching profession, and agrees to support it even unto death. All this has been achieved by the German state in less than a century. It is an achievement of which any people might well be proud.

Compulsory School Laws.

The compulsory school laws of Germany are most salutary in their effects. They are severe, but they work no hardships. It has come to be so much a matter of course for children to enter school at six and attend every day regularly until they are fourteen, that to the average child it seems as inevitable as his birthdays. This assures to every child who is physically and mentally able to receive it full eight years of schooling. Luther proclaimed it the right and duty of the state to compel parents to send their children regularly to school; Weimar enacted the first compulsory education law in 1619; Gotha followed in 1642; Brunswick in 1647; Würtemberg in 1649; and finally, in the reign of Frederick the Great, Prussia introduced the plan which has since become universal in Germany. The responsibility is placed where it belongs on the parent. Complete census lists are kept by the local police; and twice a year, before the opening of each term, the school authorities are given the names of all chil

dren who should enter school. Those who are not enrolled in the higher schools, and who have not received permission to undertake private study, are required to show cause for not attending the common schoc Delinquents who do not satisfactorily excuse their shortcomings are reported to th police or truant officers, whose duty it is to make investigations and institute the necessary legal proceedings. In the higher schools the proolem is much simpler than it is in the common schools, simple as it is anywhere. The necessity of earning the privileges connected with promotion in the higher schools effectually keeps all laggards in line; the assistance of the law is rarely necessary.

Hygienic Precautions.

The care of the state is most beneficent in the regulations concerning hygienic conditions of school work. No school building can be constructed, whether by royal or municipal authority or by private or corporate bodies, which does not conform to officially accepted standards of sanitary science. In the selection of school sites; in the arrangements for heating, lighting, ventilation and plumbing of school-houses; in the precautions taken for the prevention of contagious and infectious diseases, the government has taken modern science into its service. If the construction, equipment and management of German schools are not the best in the world, it is not the fault of the system. The health of the children in school is everywhere looked upon as a matter of grave importance, which is greatly complicated by the natural inclinations of the German boy to lead a sedentary life. The German boy seems to have an aversion for outdoor games; it is partly the fault of the pressure he works under in the schools, partly because he is a German. Whatever else may be done or left undone, the state insists on its children having sound bodies, as the fundamental condition of developing sound minds. The emperor told the Berlin Conference that he was "looking for soldiers; for a robust generation who can also serve the fatherland as intellectual leaders and public officials. I consider it very urgent that the question of hygiene be taken

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