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PREFACE.

THE object of this treatise is to give a full and systematic account of two principal divisions of the science of mind, the Senses and the Intellect. The remaining two divisions, comprising the Emotions and the Will, will be the subject of a future treatise.

While endeavouring to present in a methodical form all the important facts and doctrines bearing upon mind, considered as a branch of science, I have seen reason to adopt some new views, and to depart, in a few instances, from the most usual arrangement of the topics.

Conceiving that the time has now come when many of the striking discoveries of Physiologists relative to the nervous system should find a recognized place in the Science of Mind, I have devoted a separate chapter to the Physiology of the Brain and Nerves.

In treating of the Senses, besides recognizing the so-called muscular sense as distinct from the five senses, I have thought proper to assign to Movement and the feelings of Movement a position preceding the Sensations of the senses; and have endeavoured to prove that the exercise of active energy, originating in purely internal impulses, independent of

the stimulus produced by outward impressions, is a primary fact of our constitution.

Among the Senses have been here enrolled and described with some degree of minuteness, the feelings connected with the various processes of organic life,Digestion, Respiration, &c.-which make up so large a part of individual happiness and misery.

A systematic plan has been introduced into the description of the conscious states in general, so as to enable them to be compared and classified with more precision than heretofore. However imperfect may be the first attempt to construct a Natural History of the Feelings, upon the basis of a uniform descriptive method, the subject of Mind cannot attain a high scientific character until some progress has been made towards the accomplishment of this object.

In the department of the Senses, the Instincts, or primitive endowments of our mental constitution, are fully considered; and in endeavouring to arrive at the original foundation, or first rudiments, of Volition, a theory of this portion of the mind has been suggested.

In treating of the Intellect, the subdivision into faculties is abandoned. The exposition proceeds entirely on the Laws of Association, which are exexemplified with minute detail, and followed out into a variety of applications.

LONDON, June, 1855.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

THIS

IS edition has been thoroughly revised, and in many places re-written. Although I have not seen reason to change any of my leading views on the subject of mind, I hope I may have succeeded in improving the statement and exposition of them.

It is in the first part of the work where most alteration has been made. The explanations of the Nervous system and the Senses have been amended according to the best recent authorities on Physiology. The Definition of Mind has been somewhat differently expressed. The systematic plan of describing the Feelings has been modified, and all the detailed descriptions re-cast. An attempt has been made to generalize the Physical accompaniments of Pleasure and Pain. The Instinctive foundations of Volition are stated more explicitly.

In the second part, the Introduction to the Intellect has been revised, with a view to rendering as precise as possible the natural subdivisions of this portion of the mind. The doctrine referring to the physical seat of revived impressions has been discussed anew, and applied to clear up the difficulties attending the explanation of Sympathy. The associating principle of Contrast has, on farther consideration, been

treated as the reproductive aspect of Discrimination, or Relativity.

The origin of our notions of Space and Time has been more minutely traced; and some additions have been made to the handling of the great Metaphysical problem, relating to the External World.

ABERDEEN, February, 1864.

IN

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

this third edition, the work has again been subjected to a thorough revision, involving numerous amendments both in matter and in style.

The sketch of the Nervous System, and the Physiological references generally, have been compared with the statements given in the newest works. The Reflex Actions, illustrating the Will, by contrast and by resemblance, are more fully and systematically discussed.

In the Intellect, the fundamental conditions, both of Retentiveness and of Similarity, have been set forth with greater precision; whereby clearness is gained in following out the details of those great leading functions.

The value of the work is greatly enhanced by an account of the Psychology of Aristotle, which has been contributed by Mr. Grote. The chief significance of Aristotle's views, at the present day, lies in his recognizing, in an almost unqualified manner, the doublesidedness of the mental states.

ABERDEEN, September, 1868.

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