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No. 1-For SEPTEMBER, 1817.

Yorkshire Topography.


In the most Southern Angle of the County of York, and bounded on the South and South-West by the County of Derby, lies the Parish of Sheffield. To the North it abuts on the Parish of Ecclesfield; to the North East on that of Rotherham, and to the East on the Parish of Hansworth. Of the mean length of 104 miles, and of the average breadth of 3 it contains a sur face of about 38 square miles, or what may be perhaps better understood of nearly 24000 Acres.

For the extent of land comprised within its boundaries, few parishes can boast of such variety of aspect. Hill and Valley, Rock and Wood, diversify its surface, its rapid rivers dividing its territory in every direction, augment its fertility and beauty; and the high state of cultivation in which we behold its lands, the comfort and neatness displayed in its cottages; the conveniences attached to every residence in the town and the villages around, point out the Parish of Sheffield, in ordinary times, as one of the most desirable abodes in Yorkshire,

One peculiar feature in the Environs of Sheffield is, the number of villas which for two or three miles surround the town, particularly on the Western and Southern sides. Finished in the first style of elegance, embellished with its pleasure garden and its shrubbery, each dwelling betokens the opulence or the comfort of its possessor, and points out the well-earned recompence of commercial industry.

Except a small opening towards the North East, Sheffield is completely environed with hills. Towards the West, these form part of that elevated ridge known in Derbyshire by the name of East Moor. In various parts of this ridge, the rivers which irrigate the Parish, and which with their waters ourwealth along the valley, have their sources; and all uniting near the town, form one grand stream, which after performing various labours, rolls its waves silently along, till after passing Rotherham and Doncaster, it finally joins the Humber with the Trent.

That part of the Parish comprised by the Moors, and which extends to the junction of this Parish with that of Ecclesfield is a rude, denuded, sterile tract. Partly open and part inclosed, it at present exhibits that appearance, which of all it can assume, is the most unpicturesque, and comfortless. New stone walls as fences for inclosures, ground partly broken up, partly covered with Heath and Furze, rude massy stones, half blasted into fragments, and

spreading around them the new formed ruins, all conspire in producing a scene without a single charm, a picture without one harmonizing feature.

The other parts of the Parish however amply compensate for the want of beauty in this. All the charms which an improved cultivation, all the interest which a country naturally fruitful can give, are here in profusion, and render every Landscape doubly fascinating.

The gardens with which the Parish of Sheffield abounds perhaps more than most other manufacturing districts, add to its beauty and contribute materially to the health of its inhabitants; and the West Winds to which though partly sheltered by the Moors, it is peculiarly exposed, render its air salubrious, and save it from many of those pestilential disorders, to which places of great and extensive population are so universally subjected.

The Town of Sheffield stands on a rising ground at the termination of the narrow valley before speken of, having the river Don as a boundary on its Eastern side, though apparently within its seite, the most populous part of the extensive township of Brightside Bierlow, forming of itself a town on its Eastern, and its Northern Banks. The Sheaf formerly formed its boundary on the South-eastern part, as the Porter did on the South, but they like the Don, are now both within what may be considered the town, though in reality the latter runs only in the Township of Ecclesall Bierlaw.

Beyond the Sheaf is a large and populous town known by the name of the Park, and formerly belonging to the Castle. The seite is a steep gritstone rock, and new covered with houses almost te its summit presents an appearance more singular than beautiul. On the very summit of the hill, and perhaps half a mile beyond the last of the houses the family of Talbot, Earls of Shrewsbury, to whom the town and castle of Sheffield, at that time belonged, had a country residence or Lodge, now called Sheffield Manor Lodge, the ruins of which are yet standing.

Here surrounded by a forest of the finest Oaks, which this country has ever produced, we behold the honoured chieftain of the ages of Elizabeth and her father, unbending his mind from the turmoils of state, and enjoying with his family the sweets of domestic quiet. Hither we are told was brought the fallen Wolsey, when arrested by Lord Talbot, and here it is asserted he was taken ill of that disease which terminated his life. The hapless Mary too, the victim of the ambition, the envy, the malevolence, and the perfidy of Elizabeth, here, and in the castle passed many years of her confinement, under the care of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the continual jealousy of the Countess. A projecting window, fronting northward, and of which the vestiges are yet apparent, still bears the name of Queen Mary's Window.?? Some verses attributed to her, are by tradition supposed to have been composed here; and several documents or letters are yet in existence, dated from Sheffield Castle or the Manor House, which were written by that illfated, unfortunate princess.

Of this edifice, the principal remains are those exhibited in the annexed engraving, where in the shaded part of the square tower, on the left is the window before referred to, which gave light to a small room, once, according

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