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destroyed their liberty, and first delivered them to the mercy of tyrants and then to Barbarians.

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In modern times what follies and crimes have been committed for want of knowing when to stop! What piles have been kindled because piety has been unable to repress fanaticism! What massacres have ensued because the nobility refused to respect either the royal prerogative or the rights of the people! What misfortunes might not Charles XII. have avoided had be known how to check himself; he would not have fled at Pultoua, had he stopped at Narva.

There is no good quality which does not become a fault when carried too far; all good when exaggerated is converted into evil; the fairest cause, that of Heaven itself, dishonours its supporters, when unable to curb their zeal, they burn instead of instructing the incredulous.

Believe me, there is no virtue more profitable, no wisdom more useful than moderation To ameliorate mankind, the best lesson that can be given to them is, Stop a moment!

Instead of paying masters to teach young people dancing, riding and walking, to teach how to stop would contribute much more to their happiness.

But those who love glory must not suppose I am giving them timid counsel: the most powerful man and most celebrated hero of fable, far from dashing inconsiderately on an unknown and stormy Ocean, knew how to check hiinself, and engraved on his column the words: Nec plus ultra.

Very good! said a tall thin Gentleman, whilst he was taking his fourth ice, and whom we had perceived only a few minutes before; nec plus ultra : that I believe means, we want no more ultras of any kind whatever. Upon my honour that's exactly my way of thinking!

You see, said the old man, that I have not entirely lost my latin; all are at liberty to understand it as they please.-But the more brief a maxim the less it is liable to misinterpretation; I therefore confine myself to three words : Stop a moment!

To the Editor of the Northern Star.

ELL-SHAW HILL.

G. L.

"Close to the town of Ripon is a tumulus, called Ell-shaw hill; that is, Ella's wood hill, a conical hill, fifty yards diameter at the base, and rising fifteen yards to thesummit, on which stands a sycamore tree about fifteen years old; but it was once covered with timber, as its name indicates. The common people call it a hill of culls. It is in reality composed of gravel and human bones placed alternately in layers, the result of a battle.

A small incident may create evils not to be repaired. Osbert, King of Deira and Northumberland, on 886, kept his Court at York. Returning one day from hunting, he called for refreshment at the Castle of Earl Bruern, one of his own noblemen, who was guardian of the coast against the. Danes.

The Earl being from home, the lady received him with the politeness due to a Sovereign. Her beauty and behaviour instantly captivated the Monarch; he was determined to gain her. Upon pretence of communicating private business of importance, he conducted her into another apartment, and after several attempts to win her, but in vain, he was determined to enjoy her by force.

After the commission of the fatal deed, he could not console her, but left her in tears, that she neither could, nor wished to hide from the Earl. This affront the husband could not forgive, though the offender was a King, and Bruern his subject; he resolved to revenge himself.

His office gave him great interest with the Northumbrians. By the influence of the Earl, the Bernicians in a short time revolted, and took up arms against Osbert, looking upon him as unfit to govern; and elected another King named Ella, whom they crowned, and determined to support. Thus a division was made between two parties, who had recently been united. This civil war, as is often the case, was fatal to both. ́.

The two kings, Osbert and Ella, frequently tried to finish the contest by force of arms; but the scale was even. The injured Earl Bruern was not satisfied with Osbert's losing only one half his kingdom, for he was still King of Deira. He resolved to apply to the Danes, a people he was bound by his office to repel. He sailed to Denmark, and invited King Ivar, (Hinguer,) apprising him of the divided state of the Northumbrians, assuring him he might become master of the kingdom.

Ivar readily embraced the plan, and they jointly fixed upon the mode of proceeding. The Danish monarch entered the Humber with a powerful fleet, which spread an alarm over England.

Ivar was attended by his brother Hubba, and conducted by Bruern. As the Northumbrians had received no intelligence of the invasion, they were totally unprepared to oppose them; so that without difficulty, Ivar became master of the Northern coast of the Humber.

He marched directly towards York, where Osbert was preparing fo oppose him. In this extremity, Osbert solicited the assistance of Ella, though his adversary; for now both their causes were become one.

They agreed to join their armies against the common enemy. Osbert, however, eager to fight Ivar before Ella was prepared, sallied out of York, and a desperate battle ensued. Ivar, at first, could not stand the shock, and was thrown into confusion; but, by resolutely fighting, he recovered his ranks, and in turn pressed hard upon Osbert; who enraged to see the victory taken from him, used every effort to recover it, but to no purpose, for in the retreat he was slain.

This victory opened the gates of York and of England to the Danes. While they were refreshing themselves, Ella, with his army, was marching up to repair the loss of Osbert's hasty step. Iva marched out of York, and met him at Ripon, twenty-two miles distant. A battle ensued, as bloody as the first, and as fatal to England. Ella was slain in the retreat and most of his people; hence this funeral pile, this mountain of the deed was called Ell-Shaw-Hill. HUTTON.

Sir.

To the Editors of the Northern Star.

I shall feel much obliged by any of your Correspondents, informing me whether more than four volumes were ever publihed of a work entitled the TOPOGRAPHER, and into whose hands the communications respecting Bakewell in the County of Derby, have fallen.

Derby, July 20, 1817.

Sir,

Yours, &c.

ERBISON STROMP.

To the Editor of the Northern Star.

If the nature and mode of composition in the following brief account of the Roman History, &c. in this place, be admissable in the Northern Star" you'll please to insert it soon as possible, and if it be approved by my towsnmen I will now and then give you a similar portion, so as in time, to complete the ancient History &c. of the town and neighbourhood of Doncaster, in a series of letters addressed to you, which you may intitle

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT STATE

OF

DONCASTER & ITS NEIGBOURHOOD,

By an Inhabitant,

ONCASTER is universally allowed by all those who have the most

and salubrions places in the North, or perhaps in the British empire.Situated in the center of a populous neighbourhood, surrounded on all sides by wood, and fertile meadows, watered by a deep and rapid river, and enveloped as it were by a congenial atmosphere, in these matters it yields the palm of priority to no place in his Majesty's dominions.In point also of its internal government, and the regulation of its police, it is well attended to; the town of itself is uncommonly handsome; its broad wellpaved and lighted streets, its public buildings and private houses may vie with any out of the British Metropolis, and nearly equal to most, in that asemblage of architectural granduer.

Doncaster, also, has great claims to an antiquated origin-it is seated in that part of Britain, whose inhabitants were by the native tribes, and our Roman ancestors, called the Brigantes, which division comprehended the counties of York, Lancaster, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and the Bishoprick of Durham, but in the latter period of the Roman goverment, in this island, it was denominated Valentia, in honor of Valentinian, who at that time swayed the Roman scepter. It also, during the Roman ascendancy, was styled Maxima Cesariensis, and on the division of the king

dom by its Saxon conquerors; the same part, with but little alteration, was called Northumbria, and continued as such, or nearly so, 'till the time of Alfred, in whose reign England again for the more effectual administration of justice, underwent a change in its division, and this part was then known by the appellation of Eurvicsicre, and in our days, Yorkshire, which name, in all probability, is destined to run parallel with the duration of the name of England. From the time of the Brigantes, to the present period, this country, seems to have had its boundaries in this neighbourhood, and appears to be determined in it spresent extent southwards, by the ancient limits of the Brigantes Valentians and Northumbrians.

Doncaster does not appear to have come under the immediate observation of either Ptolomy the geographer, or the anonymous Ravenna; though some have affirmed that the Abus Flu of Ptolomy, was to be found here, but that is an undoubted error, as is evidently proved by a range of sound argumentation, in some of our modern Antiquarians, that the Abus Flu of Ptolomy, is the mouth of the river Humber. It is known in the itinerary of Antoninus, by the name of Danum, as well also in the Notitia, which was written during the conjoint reign of Arcadius and Honorious; it is known in Ninnius by the appellation of Cær Panum, and in Saxon history, by the name of Dona-cercen. The etymology of many ancient places is often very obscure and uncommon doubtful, but that of Doncaster, seems to have triumphed over the ruins of time, and come down to us with undoubted authority, and almost without a contradiction.

The Notitia expressly states, that a prefect of the Crispian horse, under the Duke of Britain, was stationed here, the "Dux Britanniarum,' according to the Notitia, dated by Pancerollus, is said to have been governer of this part of Brltain then called Valentia, and by some Maxima Cæsarienses, and to have had several corps of horse garrisoned in this neighbourhood, and more North, he had one at Præsidium or Practorium, (Broughton in Lincolnshire) one at Templebrough, on Morbium, (a place between Rotherham and Tinsley, which the rapidity of the River Dun, after every flood, renders evident to very superficial observation) and one at Eboracum (York) the other stations may be seen at large, in Pancerollus's edition of the Notitia, entitled " Notitia utraque dignitatum cum orientis "tum occidentis ultra Arcadii Honoriique tempora" which is a work well worthy the perusal of the curious in antiquities, and valuable in general, to the man of letters.

A Roman vicinal way also passes through this place, and is called by Camden "Old Street" it leaves the Herman Street a little North of Lindum (Lincoln) passes onward to the Trent, which it crosses at Angelocum (Littlebrough Ferry) where its remains are yet grand and conspicious. From thence it continues in a North-west direction, and may, with some exceptions, be traced all the way to Danum (Doncaster.) It appears to have crossed the brook a little below Ressington Bridge, keeping the higher ground as was the custom of the Romans, till it entered Danam from the enclosures; some remains may yet, with an antiquarians eye, be seen on the common, but in the inclosures, the plough has com

pletely obliterated its vestiges, save in Rossington field, where its remains are yet visible. But after its arrival at Doncaster, whether it serves as the basis on which the present great North road proceeds, is a problem of no easy solution, and beyond my ability to either affirm or deny; but if I was to hazard a conjecture on the occasion, I should certainly lean to the negative side of the question, and imagine it proceeded up St. Sepulchre's Gate, to Hexthorp, where it might cross the river, and without hindrance or difficulty, proceed and continue its course on the high ground, till it again unites with the present port road, about five or six miles North of Danum. It assumes an eminence on Scauby-Leas, which cannot but excite attention though it is mearly a bank of gravel, without that system of regular pavement, which is the charasterictic feature of some of the Roman roads.

It is difficut to tell how the Roman armies would be able to cross the river, which, at the west end of the town, tosses out an arm, which it again joins at the eastern end, and by that means, forms an Island, which, prior to the art of draining, must have rendered any attempt at crossing abortive; equipped as the Roman Legions generally were, and more especially, as by passing a mile up the river, they would have only one stream to pass, and firm sure ground to proceed upon, which will in part account for Hexthorp being of such eminence at a former period, as it is evident it was, from various grants, &c. made by the conqueror to his generals, &c. after his successful invasion of this Island, in 1066, and in more recent times by his successors and individuals.

After the highway of Roman origin, which passes through this place to Legroteum, (Castleford) it proceeds forward, till it forms a junction with that memorable way, called Watling Street, at Calcaria, which some suppose to be the modern Tadcaster, while others with greater probality,ascribe to Newton Kyme, the honor of being the ancient Calcaria, and through which, passed that celebrated street; but whether of the two it is, is of but little consequence; after leaving Calcaria, it soon reaches Eboracum, (York) and then after a third time of crossing the Kingdom, the Watling Street arrives at the Vallum or Wall of Hadrian, which according to the second Iter of Antoninus's itinerary, it has run a course of no less a length than four hundred and eighty one Roman miles.

We have not on record any account whatever, that any battle or struggle of consequence took place immediately within the vicinity of Doncaster during the Roman times, which in part may be attributed to the proximity of the Roman focus of Power, which was generally concentrated at York. Indeed, it was altogether so in the latter period of their ascendancy in this Island.

Doncaster cannot boast in its production of Roman remnants as it respects Coins, Sculptures, &c. but has had the honour of discovering one to the world, of which there have only two that bears any resemblance to it yet

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