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the recovery of patients. Any one, whatever may be his place of residence, is admitted on the recommendation of a subscriber; but in cases of sudden accident, &c. no recommendation is required. In respect to situation, plan medical aid, and comfortable treatment it is universally allowed that this Infirmary, may vie with almost any institution of a similar kind in the Kingdom."


In Sheffield Park is an Hospital erected in the year 1670 by Henry Earl of Norwich in pursuance of the will of his great grandfather Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, and augmented in 1770 by a gift of £1000 from Edward, then Duke of Norfolk. This money was applied in building a new chapel in room of the one previously destroyed or damaged.

This hospital was originally designed for fifteen men and fifteen women, aged decayed housekeepers, each of whom was provided with a house and garden, three cart loads of coals annually, and two new shirts or shifts; a blue gown or loose coat every second year; every seventh year a Purple gown and badge; and a regular pension of half a crown a week. By an improvement of the funds, three men and three women have been admitted in addition, and the weekly pension to each more than doubled.


Another Hospital is situated near West Bar, which was erected in 1703 by Mr. Thomas Hollis, Merchant of London, formerly a native of Sheffield, for the benefit of sixteen Cutler's Widows. They have each a separate dwelling, a pension of six pounds ten shillings a year, two cart loads of coals annually and every second year a brown gown and petticoat. To this Hos

pital is attached a school for teaching forty boys to read, and for instructing a limited number in writing.


Sheffield at present abounds with schools for the instruction of the children of the Poor; among these the most prominent are the Boys and Girls Charity Schools; the Free Grammar School, the Free Writing School, and the National and Lancasterian Schools; there are also Sunday Schools belonging to, or patronized by, every denomination of Christians.

Few towns too can boast of better schools, than those which are here adapted to the general purposes of Education; Conducted by masters of ability in their profession, the routine of the counting house, the nature of commerce, the Sciences and the Arts become integrants of study, and form a regular course of Education.


The public buildings of Sheffield, for chasteness of Architecture, and elegance of appearance, are at least equal to those of other towns, in many cases superior. The Flesh market or Shambles, has not perhaps its equal for beauty and convenience in the Kingdom. The Town-Hall is particularly

neat, and very appropriate for its use. The Assembly Room elegant in its front; and the Cutlers Hall neatly fitted up and well adapted for public business. To give such an account of them as they deserve would be to swell out this article to a length of which the generality of our readers would little approve.

Taken as a whole few towns have in this last half century improved so much as Sheffield; within that period it has more than doubled its area and its inhabitants. New Towns have sprung up on every side, and what were then gardens, fields, or woods, are now covered with streets, houses or manufactories.

As the principal feature of the history of Sheffield is connected with its trade, and as that under the term of the Iron trade forms another part of this work, it must be here unnecessary to enlarge upon it; Let it then suffice to say that few towns possess the spirit, the literature, the intelligence or the information of Sheffield; no where is the labouring part of the population surrounded with so many comforts, nor before this sad period of ruined or stagnant trade, has any class of people shewn more real independence of character, liberality of sentiment, or greatness of mind.


Of the Agriculture of the Parish of Sheffield little can be said. The land being in small allotments, and in hands with whom cultivation is only a secondary object, it cannot be expected that any particular system is pursued, or that extensive experiment should be tried: the land however is generally well manured, and its occupiers as amply repaid by a most luxuriant produce. Horticulture however is much attended to. This must naturally be the case, for in such a population as is supplied from this market, vegetables must of course be much in demand, hence we see market-gardens on every side. Small gardens are also much attended to. The Cutler, after a day's close confinement to the forge, the grindstone or the work-board, retires to his garden in the evening, and by cultivating his flowers, his gooseberry trees or his cabbages, finds a solace from his labour, and a preservative for his health. Hence we see the environs of the town abounding in little gardens, kept in the nicest order, presenting to view the choicest exotics, and frequently containing a little ornamental cot, embellished with honeysuckles or hollyhocks, or half covered with some climbing shrub, which serves as a lovely retreat for the occupier and his family, on a Sunday evening, to take their tea and pass an hour or two in rural happiness.

(To be concluded in our next.)


Picturesque Scenery, Antiquities, &c.



To the Editor of the Northern Star

Observing that one part of your Magazine is devoted to Picturesque Scenery, and that, as an Artist coming particularly within my province, I am induced, (if it meet with your approbation,) to solicit your insertion of these observations.

The term Picturesque I consider as properly applied to whatever may be formed into an interesting picture, and though the playful author of Dr. Syntax, and several other authors that I could mention, have attempted to hold it up as a butt for ridicule, the real painter and the man of taste feel its existence, and are at no loss to distinguish it from the many rude subjects with which it is frequently surrounded. Its principle is universal, and its application compatible with every species of visible object. Picturesque Beauty is found not only in the ruined Abbey, the Mossgrown Tower, the Broken Bridge, the Park, the Lake, the Villa, or the Village, but in the lone cottage or the isolated tree, the full blown mossy rose or the rampant nettle.

But Picturesque Beauty can be no where found in such an endless variety, as on, or near the rapid brooks and rivers of the North. Frequently confined in a deep channel, their rocky sides overhung with brambles, briars and hazles, the eddying wave just catching the light, sparkles in the dell, and interests the eye of taste; or emerging from the glen, and with resistless force rushing among the rude enormous stones which in vain impede its passage, the water half converted into foam, tosses about its spray, and presents a scene of liveliness and beauty, which aided by the music of the stream, steals upon the senses, and sooths the soul with tender melancholy. These considerations have influenced me to pay a visit to Yorkshire, to seek the beauties on its various streams, to trace its rivers to their sources, and along their banks, to notice whatever may be interesting, curious, or Those on the Southern side of the County in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, are all I have at present surveyed; the rest shall follow at such intervals as I can spare for their transcription.


The DON the principal of the Rivers in the South of Yorkshire, and which swallows the waters of all the lesser ones in the neighbourhood, takes its rise on that high land, which Farey in his late Survey denominates the Grand Ridge, an elevated chain which running from some of the south

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ern counties, passes through Derbyshire, Yorkshire, &c. till it joins with the high mountains of Scotland. The scenery at its source, is one continued sterile tract, void of trees and void of vegetation, the heath, the bracken and the furze, with a species or two of the Whortle, being the only plants which fill up the intervals betwixt the rough amorphous stones. Here then is nothing which can with any propriety be termed picturesque. Nature appears denuded, neglected and divested of every form of loveliness and beauty.

To trace this stream through all its windings, to note down every change of feature, every improvement in its landscape, though entertaining to the Artist who makes the actual tour, would be but little interesting when described on paper. Passing over then some miles of its course, gradually increasing in effect and interest, we arrive at a point near Wortley, where it assumes a beauty hitherto unknown. Hence under the edge of Warncliffe wood, and along the Park, it boasts of Scenery almost unequalled; but as your correspondent "R" has in your second number so well described its beauties in a walk to Warncliffe, to attempt it here would be but a useless tautology.

Betwixt here and Sheffield, the DoN, like most other rivers near manufacturing towns, begins to take its character from the trade. Grinding Wheels and Weirs, expanded Dams and narrow Water-Gates, are now its principal accompaniments, many of them uncommonly beautiful and singularly curious; while the Alder which hère grows luxuriantly, and every where fringes its sides, assists in producing at every turn a highly pleasing landscape. This character is common to all the lesser rivers. They generally rise on the sides of the uncultivated hills which form part of the grand ridge before mentioned, and having a considerable fall for their waters, run with great rapidity along their deep worn channels, half choaked by the mossy fragments of rock which have from time to time fallen from the excavated banks. The Weirs have nearly from age and neglect assumed the character of natural cascades, and the LOXLEY, the RIVELYN and the PORTER, prest scenes of wildness, to which it is difficult for the pencil to do justice.

On the PORTER (but this is common to all the rivers mentioned) I was particularly struck with the appearance of a Grinding Wheel, the gable of which was profusely covered with Ivy, and which standing in a small plain just above the entrance of a thick shrubby wood, presented a picture which well characterized the country. It was built of Stone; its long windows and its singularity, proclaimed it at sight to be no place of residence, and the asses ruminating among the new unused grinding stones, joined to every part of the view, repaid me for my trouble, and gave me an opportunity of sketching a landscape, to which I shall often recur with delight.

The use of these grinding wheels, is to grind and polish, (for I am iguorant of the Technologia of Cutlery,) the blades of knives and other articles of iron and steel. At this, which I am speaking of, the articles ground are

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