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Aborigines, still keeping possession of the hills on the North of the river, would retreat slowly, and having always in sight the operations of the invaders would be prepared to hold them in check; constructing a bank defended by a breast work on an eminence parallel with the river, they would preserve their communications with their holds to the Eastward, and as before observed from their commanding situation alone, be able constantly to keep their invaders in check. Making a bold stand at Wincobank, they would feel themselves comparatively in safety, for they had the highest eminence in their neighbourhood in possession, a deep and rapid river in their front, impassible except at Templeborough by the new made ford, and a long chain of forts or stations on the ridge, so that they could remain sometime at least before they were dislodged. But as the Romans must though slowly still advance, they would in the end be obliged to give up their post; and that this or something like it was the case we have more than traditionary evidence.

Some miles North-westward of Wincobank, is a small town now known by the name of Derwent, near which the Derbyshire river of the same name takes its rise. This, previously to the building of the town, was a waste, covered with wood and abounding with rocks and caverns. To this place numbers of the Aborigines retreated from the face of the conquerors, and after the forfeiture of their country's freedom, lived many years unmolested; and hither in after times during the disputes betwixt Northumbria and Bernicia, the oppressed Bernicians fled for shelter. Now, is it not probable, that when the Britons could no longer make Wincobank tenable. that they would retreat into Derbyshire, and entrenching themselves behind Carleswork, place their families in security in the woods and caves of Derwent, and wait in anxiety the coming storm.

I know Sir it is difficult at so great a distance of time, to fix the origin of any work with certainty, and perhaps I have been to prolix on this subject. What I wish is, that you would insert this letter in your fourth number, in the hope that it will induce some better informed correspondent, to give his opinion on the subject in some further one.

Rotherham, Sept. 13th, 1817.

I remain, Sir.
Your's, &c.

To the Editor of the Northern Star.


A. T.

This is a handsome market and corporation town, in the hundred of Scarsdale, which the Saxon name of Chester, and the ruins of the town walls, prove to be of antiquity. At the time of the Norman survey, it was only a bailiwick, belonging to the manor of Newbold. However, the name of the place seems to indicate, that previous to this period, a castle was situated here. "It is highly probable" says Mr. Pilkington, "that the Roman road from Derby to York, passed through this place, and that there was a station or en campment there." Though at the Norman conquest, Chesterfield was a place

of small note and consequence, it must very soon afterwards have increased in size and importance. There was certainly a church here in the 11th century. For William Rufus gave the Church of Chesterfelt to the Cathedral Church at Lincoln †. In the reign of King John the town was incorporated in favour of William Briwere, or Bruere. He obtained from his Sovereign in the 6th year of his reign a Grant in fee farm of the manor of Chesterfield, with Brunnington (suppose Brimmington), and Wittington, with the soak, sixty-nine pounds, and for Scarsedale ten pounds *. Baldwin Wake by marrying the daughter of William Bruere, jun. obtained possession of the manor of Chesterfield. It afterwards became the property of Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, who married Margaret Wake; and was inherited by his descendants during several generations. In 26. Edwd. III. it was held by John, second son of Edmund of Woodstock, and grandson of Edward I.; and in the year 1386 by Sir Thomas Holland. In 1443 Chesterfield belonged to William Neville. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, was Lord of this manor. It afterwards by purchase came into the possession of William, Earl of Newcastle, and Sir Charles Cavendish, his brother, who received a confirmation of the grant from King Charles I. in the seventh year of his reign. The manor of Chesterfield by inheritance, now belongs to the Duke of Portland. It has already been observed, that Chesterfield became a borough town in the reign of King John. The Corporation consists of a Mayor, 6 Aldermen, 6 Brethren, 12 Burgesses, and 24 Common-council men. The place has been particularly distinguished by the battle fought here in the reign of Henry III. in which Robert de Ferrars, the last Earl of Derby, of that noble family, was defeated, and hiding himself under some sacks of wool was discovered by the treachery of a woman, and brought prisoner to London. His immense possessions, particularly in this county and Staffordshire being forfeited, were granted to Edmnnd, the King's son, and formed great part of the Duchy of Lancaster. Nothing but the castle of Chartley, and its appen-" dages was restored to the Ferrars family, an estate which their posterity of the female line still enjoy. Speed says 66 a conflict was done at Chesterfield whereine Robert Ferrers Earle of Derby was taken and many slain. An. Henry III. 41. 1256." But this battle is in the Archeologia Vol. 2. said to have been fought A. D. 1266. this however must be a mistake. Baldwin Wake the fourth, whose name is otherwise written Le War, was the possessor of the great manor of Chesterfield, when this battle was fought. Chesterfield as has been before observed accrued to them by marriage of Baldwin the 3rd, grandfather of Baldwin above-mentioned, with Isabella, daughter of William Briwese or Bruere. The description of it runs thua" mannerium de Cestrefeld cum redditibus et servitiis duorum tenementhum suorum, de Newbold, Barley (now Barlow), Whittington Magna, Topton (now Tapton), Boy thorp, et Ecchington, et totum wapentachum prædictum;" meaning the wapentake hundred of Scarsedale. Baldwin the 4th, then about 26 years of age, “taking part with the rebellious Barons, was in arms with them at Northampton, * Pilkington, Vol. 2.

+ Willis's History of Cathedrals.


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when they fortified both town and castle against the King; and upon the storming thereof by the Royal Army, was then with many more made prisoners. After the Barons were disinherited by the Parliament at Northampton, many of them were extremely dissatisfied, and amongst the rest Robert Earl Ferrars, Baldwin Wake, &c. &c. Robert was in his Earldom where his power must have its best influence, and its greatest extent; and as to Baldwin, hẹ was here in his own Lordship, and no doubt could raise a considerable body of vassals and tenants.

Earl Robert disregarding the Oath he had made to Prince Edward, after the battle of Evesham collected a large party of his friends and followers at Duffield-frith, otherwise called the Forest of Duffield, which then belonged to him, and where he had a castle. The parties assembled were people of no great account, being represented as Vespillones, or a set of Banditti, intent upon plundering and ravaging the country. They were, however, numerous and were soon joined by some malcontents of a more respectable Character: Baldwin Wake, John D'Eyville, John Neville, Henry Hastings, Sir George Coldwell, Sir John Clinton, Sir Robert Mandevil, Sir Richard Coldwell, and several others, who were, no doubt, properly attended. They had removed, it seems from Driffield and taken post at Chesterfield, where the King sent his Nephew Henry, Eldest son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans, assisted, as Stowe says, by John Earl Warren, and Sir Warren of Basingbourne, as likewise by John of Raynall, against them with great strength, the Prince made such haste that he surprized the Rebels and fell upon them in their quarters, when he killed the greatest part, took Earl Ferrars prisoner, and dispersed the rest, Wake and D'Eyville, hardly escaping.*

The Church, which is large and handsome, is built in the same form as Cathedral Churches- The extraordinary appearance of the steeple, which seems not only twisted but to lean to which ever side one is looking from, surprises every body. The Living is a vicarage; and the Church is dedicated to All Saints. The value in the King's Books is £15 Os 24d. yearly tenths £1 10s Old. The Dean of Lincoln is Patron. At what particular time the Church was built is unknown. It is, however very ancient. It is said to have been dedicated in the year 1232. "These arms stand all very old in the Windowes of Chesterfield Church, August 20th, 1611.† England, with a border A.



England with

a border A



Az. a lion Rampant, A.

Barry of six, O. and G. in chief three torteauxes.

Loudham, A. on a Bend Az. six crosslets 0,

Longford, single, viz. paly of six, O. and G. a bend A.
Loudham single, and Foljambe the same.

A. two bars Az. a label of three, O.-G. on a bend A. three crosslets, S.

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-G. three lozenges. 4. each charged with a fesse dauncette, between six billets S. all between two double cotises, 4.-Foljambe again.-G. a fess between six crosslets, 0.0, a chevron. G. Stafford.-G. a Saltier A., Neville.-G. a cross fleurè, O.-S. six crowns, 3, 2, and 1, 0Az. a cross fleurè between four martlets, O. Edward the Confessor.—Az. a fesse dancette between six billets, O.-Az. a Cross fleurè 4. surcharged with another Az.-Barry of six O. and G. in chief three torteauxes.—A. a cross G.-England, single.-Az. three stirrups, O.-G. a cross A.—A. a griffin segr. S. impaling, Erm. a chevron G. a canton, O.

In the Chancel, is the burial place of the ancient family of Foljambe of Walton, in this parish. The following inscription which was here 1611, is now gone. "HIC JACET HENRICUS FOLJAMBE ARMIGER, QUI OBIIT Ao. 66 HENRICA SEPTIMI DECIMO." (Black letter.)

Derby September 9th, 1817.


(To be continued.)

To the Editor of the Northern Star.

"I have said in my haste, all men are liars."

David's Psaims.

May not the Vices, the Follies, and the Inconsistencies of the age be in some measure attributed to the imbecility, the inactivity and the ignorance of Precep

tors ?"


Bentham's Northern Star.

Could it ever have entered the heart or mind of man to have supposed that a most respectable set of men should have thus been slandered? Yes, that set of men has met with a SLANDERER!! Alas "the follies and the vices of the age" have had their rise, and that too in a most " unquestionable shape!"


It is indeed strange, "passing strange," that such a work should have so far disgraced itself, and the authors cf it, as to lay all the crimes (for so I understand it) at this time on the shoulders of the poor and humble Schoolmaster, Oh! what must be the idea of that Parent, who could think, and read the above calumny and not shudder for the future welfare of his offspring! How heart-rending must it be to be compelled thus, in these enlightened times, to put our children to School under such dreadful and afflicting auspices and circumstances, as are here denounced on every preceptor without distinction! I have ever for myself thought that the teachers of youth could never have existed, (or even been entitled to live,) for a year, nay a week or so short a period as a single day, if it could have been in the least

degree thought, that they promoted those diabolical principles with which they are charged. No one could conceive for a moment that a professor of Education could propose one thing, aud in the face of all the world, practi the contrary, and expect to meet with support and approbation. It is absurdity in the extreme. It is worse than nourishing the destroyer in your bosoms; for a single instance would point out the danger, and hence you might escape with safety.

But why Schoolmasters should be dealt with by wholesale I am not a little puzzled to make out. Has one offended him? he spurns at all. Did the author of the scandal go to School? What kind of a Master had he? Will he say that he taught him to propogate the principles of licentiousness? Surely he will not dare to make such an assertion. Do but observe the cover of the said Bentham's Northern Star, for there is an Advertisement from a most respectable preceptor, who professes to teach the youth of our day, and make them acquainted, aye, better acquainted with the knowledge of the world and of themselves. Is this preceptor an exception, or is he included in the illiberal censure? But in a word, had I carelessly made use of such an assertion, (to call it nothing worse,) now, I should say in words similar to those of the Psalmist that I have said in my haste all preceptors are promoters of the vices, the follies and inconsistencies of the age, or that they are attributed to [caused by] their imbecility, inactivity and igno


O shame on the world! that such a thing should have been admitted and industriously circulated in this our day, when that universal desire is so strongly manifested, both by rich and poor, and every exertion made in the power of man to diffuse the knowledge of man and immortality.

I cannot deny myself giving the following as an appropriate description of so base a slanderer:

"A would be Satirist, a hired Buffoon,

A monthly Scribbler of some LOW LAMPOON,
Condemn'd to drudge, the meanest of the mean,
Devotes to Scandal his congenial mind;
Himself a living libel on mankind."


I could not rest a moment until I had penned the above, and I sincerely hope you will give it a place, in your next Northern Star, with a view of counteracting one, though not the least, of the imbecilities of the age.

Leeds, September 7, 1817.

I am, &c.


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