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Light that a man receiveth by Counfel from another, is drier and purer than that which cometh from his own Understanding and Judgment, which is ever infufed and drenched in his Affetions and Customs, fo as there is as much difference between the Counsel that a Friend giveth, and that a man giveth himself, as there is between the Counfel of a Friend, and of a Flatterer: For there is no fuch Flatterer, as in a mans self; and there is no fuch remedy against Flattery of a mans felf, as the Liberty of a Friend. Counsel is of two forts; the one concerning Manners, the other concerning Bufinefs. For the firft; The best preservative to keep the Mind in Health, is the faithful Admonition of a Friend. The calling of a Mans Self to a ftrict Account. is a Medicine fometime too Piercing and Corrofive: Reading good Books of Morality, is a little Flat and Dead. Obferving our Faults in Others, is. fometimes unproper for our Cafe. But the best Receipt (beft (I fay) to work, and beft to take) is the Admonition of a Friend. It is a ftrange thing to behold, what grofs Errors, and extream Abfurdities, many (especially of the greater Sort) do commit, for want of a Friend to tell them of them, to the great damage both of their Fame and Fortune: for, as St. James faith, they are as Men that look fometimes into a Glafs, and prefently forget their own Shape and Favour. As for Bufinefs, a man may think, if he will, that two Eyes fee no more than one; or that a Gamefter feeth always more than a Look

on; or that a man in Anger is as wife as he, that hath faid over the four and twenty Letters; or that a Musket may be shot off as well upon the Arm, as upon a Reft; and fuch other fond and high Imaginations, to think himself All in All. But when all is done, the help of good Counsel is that which fetteth Bufinefs ftreight; and if any man think that he will take Counfel, but it shall be by pieces, asking Counfel in one business of one man, and in another business of another man; It is well, (that is to say, better perhaps than if he asked none at all) but he runneth two dangers; one, that he shall not faithfully be Counfelled; for it is a rare thing, except it be from a perfect and entire Friend, to have Counsel given, but fuch as fhall be bowed and crooked to fome ends, which he hath that giveth it. The other, that he shall have Counsel given, hurtful and unfafe, (though with good meaning) and mixt; partly of mischief, and partly of remedy: even as if you would call a Phyfician, that is thought good, for the Cure of the Disease you complain of, but is unacquainted with your Body; and therefore may put you in a way for prefent Cure. but overthroweth your Health in fome other kind, and fo cure the Disease, and kill the Patient. But a Friend, that is wholly acquainted with a Mans Eftate, will beware, by furthering any prefent Bufinefs, how he dasheth upon other Inconvenience; and therefore rest not upon Scattered Counfels, forthey will rather diAract and mis-lead, than fettle and direct.


After these two noble Fruits of Friendship, (Peace in the Affections, and Support of the Judgment) followeth the laft Fruit which is like the Pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean Aid, and Bearing a Part in all Actions and Occafions. Here the best way to reprefent to the life the manifold ufe of Friendship, is to caft and see, how many things there are, which a man cannot do himfelf; and then it will appear, that it was a sparing Speech of the Ancients, to say, That a Friend is another himself; for that a Friend is far more than himself. Men have their time, and dye many times in defire of fome things, which they principally take to heart; The beftowing of a Child, the finifhing of a Work, or the like. If a man have a true Friend, he may reft almoft fecure, that the care of those things will continue after him: fo that a man hath as it were two Lives in his defires. A man hath a Body, and that Body is confined to a place; but where Friendship is, all Offices of Life are as it were granted to him and his Deputy: for he may exercise them by his Friend. How many things are there, which a man cannot, with any face or comeliness, fay or do himself? A man can fcarce alledg his own merits with modelty, much less extol them: A man cannot fometimes brook to fupplicate or beg; and a number of the like. But all these things are graceful in a Friends mouth, which are blushing in a mans own. So again, a mans Perfon hath many proper Relations, which he cannot put off. A man cannot

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fpeak to his Son, but as a Father; to his Wife, but as a Husband; to his Enemy but upon terms: Whereas a Friend may speak as the Cafe requires, and not as it forteth with the Perfon: But to enumerate these things were endless: I have given the Rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part: If he have not a Friend, he may quit the Stage.



Of Expence.

ICHES are for spending, and spending for Honour and good Actions: Therefore Extraordinary Expence muft be limited by the worth of the occafion. For Voluntary Undoing may be as well for a mans Country, as for the Kingdom of Heaven; but Ordinary Expence ought to be limited by a mans Eftate, and governed with fuch regard, as it be within his compass, and not fubject to deceit and abufe of Servants, and ordered to the best fhew, that the Bills may be less than the Eftimation abroad. Certainly, if a man will keep but of even hand, his Ordinary Expences ought to be but to the half of his Receipts: And if he think to wax Rich, but to the third part. It is no baseness for the greatest to defcend and look into their own Eftate. Some forbear it, not upon negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselves into melancholy, in re


fpect they fhall find it broken; but Wounds cannot be cured without fearching. He that cannot look into his own Estate at all, had need both chufe well those whom he employeth,and change them often; for new are more timorous, and lefs fubtile. He that can look into his Estate but feldom, it behoveth him to turn all to certainty. A man had need, if he be plentiful in fome kind of Expence, to be as faving again in fome other: As if he be plentiful in Dyet, to be faving in Apparel: If he be plentiful in the Hall, to be faving in the Stable, and the like. For he that is plentiful in Expences of all kinds, will hardly be preserved from decay. In clearing of a mans Eftate, he may as well hurt himself, in being in too fudden, as in letting it run on too long. For hafty Selling is commonly as disadvantageous as Intereft. Befides, he that clears at once will relapfe; for finding himself out of ftreights, he will revert to his cuftoms: But he that cleareth by degrees, induceth a habit of frugality, and gaineth as well upon his mind as upon his Eftate. Certainly, who hath a State to repair, may not despise small things and commonly it is lefs difhonourable to abridg petty Charges, than to ftoop to petty Gettings. A man ought warily to begin Charges, which once begun will continue; but in matters that return not, he may be more magnificent.

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