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is Fortitude, which in Morals is the more heroical Vertue. Profperity is the Blefling of the Old Teftament, Adverfity is the Bleffing of the New, which carrieth the greater Benediction, and the clearer Revelation of Gods favour. Yet even in the Old Teftament, if you liften to David's Harp, you fhall hear as many Hearf-like Ayres, as Carols. And the Pencil of the Holy Ghoft hath laboured more in defcribing the Afflictions of Job, than the Felicities of Solomon. Profperity is not without many fears and diftaftes, and Adverfity is not without comforts and hopes. We fee in Needle-works and Embroyderies, it is more pleafing to have a lively work upon a fad and folemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy Work upon a lightfome ground. Judg therefore of the pleasure of the Heart, by the pleafure of the Eye. Certainly Vertue is like precious Odours, moit fragrant when they are incenfed or crushed: For Profperity doth beft discover Vice, but Adverfity doth beft difcover Vertue.
Of Simulation and Dissimulation.
Ifimulation is but a faint kind of Policy or Wifdom; for it asketh a strong Wit and a ftrong Heart, to know when to tell truth, and to do it. Therefore it is the weaker fort of Politicks, that are the great Diffemblers.
Tacitus faith, Livia forted well with the Arts of ber Husband and Diffimulation of her Son; attri buting Arts or Policy to Auguftus, and Diffimula tion to Tiberius. And again, when Mucianus encourageth Vefpafian to take Arms against Vitellius, he faith, We rife not against the piercing Judgment of Auguftus, nor the extream Caution or Clofeness of Tiberius. Thefe properties of Arts, or Policy and Diffimulation, or Clofenefs are indeed habits and faculties, feveral, and to be diftinguifhed. For if a man have that penetration of Judgment, as he can difcern, what things are to be laid open, and what to be fecreted, and what to be fhewed at half lights, and to whom, and when, (which indeed are Arts of State, and Arts of Life, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him; a habit of Diffimulation is a hinderance, and a poornefs. But if a Man cannot attain to that Judgment, then it is left to him generally to be Clofe, and a Diffembler. For where a man can not chufe or vary in Particulars, there it is good to take the fafeft and warieft way in general; like the going foftly by one that cannot well fee. Certainly the ableft Men that ever were, have had all an openness and frankness of dealing, and a Name of Certainty and Veracity: but then. they were like Horfes, well managed; for they could tell paffing well, when to stop or turn; And at fuch times, when they thought the cafe indeed required Diffimulation, if then they used it, it came to pass, that the former Opinion spread abroad of their good faith, and clearness of dealing, made them almoft invifible. C The
There are three degrees of this hiding and vailing of Mans felf. The first Clofeness, Refervation, and Secrecy; when a Man leaveth himself without obfervation, or without hold to be taken what he is. The Second Diffimulation in the Negative, when a Man lets fall Signs and Arguments, that he is not that he is. And the third Simulation in the Affirmative, when a Man industriously and exprefly feigns and pretends to be that he is not.
For the firft of thefe, Secrecy: It is indeed the vertue of a Confeffor; and affuredly the Secret Man heareth many Confeffions: For who will open himself to a Blab, or a Babler? But if a man be thought Secret, it inviteth discovery, as the more clofe Air fucketh in the more open: And as in confeffion, the revealing is not for worldly use, but for the ease of a Mans heart; fo Secret, Men come to the knowledg of many things in that kind, while Men rather discharge their minds, than impart their minds. In few words, Mysteries are due to Secrecy. Befides (to fay truth) Nakedness is uncomely, as well in mind as in body; and it addeth no small reverence to Mens manners and actions, if they be not altogether open. As for Talkers, and Futile perfons, they are commonly vain, and credulous withal. For he that talketh what he knoweth, will alfo talk what he knoweth not. Therefore fet it down, that an habit of Secrecy is both politick and moral. And in this part it is good, that a Mans face give his tongue leave to fpeak. For
the discovery of Mans felf, by the tracts of his countenance, is a great weaknefs and betraying, by how much it is many times more marked and believed, than a Mans words.
For the fecond, which is Diffimulation: It followeth many times upon Secrecy by a neceffity; fo that he that will be Secret, must be a Diffem bler in fome degree. For men are too cunning, to fuffer a man to keep an indifferent carriage between both, and to be Secret without fwaying the ballance on either fide. They will so befet a Man with questions, and draw him on, and pick it out of him, that without an abfurd filence, he must thew an inclination one way; or if he do not, they will gather as much by his Silence, as by his Speech: As for Equivocations, or Oraculous Speeches, they cannot hold out long: fo that no man can be Secret, except he give himself a little scope of Diffimulation, which is, as it were, but the skirts or train of Secrecy.
But for the third degree, which is Simulation, and falfe profeffion: That I hold more culpable, and lefs politick, except it be in great and rare matters. And therefore a general cuftom of Si-: mulation (which is this latt degree) is a Vice, rifing either of a natural falfnefs or fearfulness, or of a mind that hath fome main faults; which because a Man muft needs difguife, it maketh him practife Simulation in other things, left his hand (hould be out of ure.
The great advantages of Simulation and Difimulation are three. First, To lay afleep oppotiC 2
tion, and to furprise: For where a Mans intentions are published, it is an alarm to call up all that are against them. The second is, to referve to a Mans felf a fair retreat: For if a man engage himself by a manifeft Declaration, muft go through, or take a fall. The third is, the better to discover the mind of another: For to him that opens himself, Men will hardly shew themfelves averfe, but will (fair) let him go on, and turn their freedom of fpeech to freedom of thought. And therefore it is a good shrewd Pr verb of the Spaniard, Tell a lye, and find a Troth; as if there were no way of difcovery, but by Simulation.
There be alfo three disadvantages to let it even. The first, That Simulation and Diffimulation commonly carry with them a fhew of fearfulness, which in any bufinefs doth spoil the feathers of round flying up to the mark. The second, That it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many, that perhaps would otherwife co-operate with him, and makes a man walk almost alone to his own ends. The third and greatest is, That it depriveth a man of one of the moft principal inftruments for action, which is Trust and Belief. The compofition and temperature is, to have Openness in fame and opinion, Secrecy in habit, Diffimulation in feasonable ufe, and a power to feign, if there be no remedy.