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points. Each point is tipped by a short, straight bristle; and slight notches on the sides of the leaves bear similar bristles. On both surfaces there are many small papillæ, crowned with two hemispherical cells in close contact. The plants float near the surface of the water, and are quite destitute of roots, even during the earliest period of growth.* They commonly inhabit, as more than one observer has remarked to me, remarkably foul ditches.

The bladders offer the chief point of interest. There are often two or three on the same divided leaf, generally near the base; though I have seen a single one growing from the stem. They are supported on short footstalks. When fully grown, they are nearly To of an inch (2·54 mm.) in length. They are translucent, of a green colour, and the walls are formed of two layers of cells. The exterior cells are polygonal and rather large; but at many of the points where the angles meet, there are smaller rounded cells. These latter support short conical projections, surmounted by two hemispherical cells in such close apposition that they appear united; but they often separate a little when immersed in certain fluids. The papillæ thus formed are exactly like those on the surfaces of the leaves. Those on the same bladder vary much in size; and there are a few, especially on very young bladders, which have an elliptical instead of a circular outline. The two terminal cells are transparent, but must hold much matter in solution, judging from the quantity coagulated by prolonged immersion in alcohol or ether.

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The bladders are filled with water. They generally, but by no means always, contain bubbles of air. According to the quantity of the contained water and air, they vary much in thickness, but are always somewhat compressed. At an early stage of growth, the flat or ventral surface faces the axis or stem; but the footstalks must have some power of movement; for in plants kept in my greenhouse the ventral surface was generally turned either straight or obliquely downwards. The Rev. H. M. Wilkinson examined

FIG. 18.

(Utricularia neglecta.)

Bladder; much enlarged. c, collar indistinctly seen through the walls.

plants for me in a state of nature, and found this commonly to be the case, but the younger bladders often had their valves turned upwards.

The general appearance of a bladder viewed laterally, with the appendages on the near side alone represented, is shown in the accompanying figure (fig. 18). The lower side, where the footstalk arises, is nearly straight, and I have called it the ventral surface. The other or dorsal surface is convex, and terminates in two long prolongations, formed of several rows of cells, containing chlorophyll, and bearing, chiefly on

the outside, six or seven long, pointed, multicellular bristles. These prolongations of the bladder may be conveniently called the antennæ, for the whole bladder. (see fig. 17) curiously resembles an entomostracan crustacean, the short footstalk representing the tail. In fig. 18, the near antenna alone is shown. Beneath the two antennæ the end of the bladder is slightly truncated, and here is situated the most important part of the whole structure, namely the entrance and valve. On each side of the entrance from three to rarely seven long, multicellular bristles project out

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wards; but only those (four in number) on the near side are shown in the drawing. These bristles, together with those borne by the antennæ, form a sort of hollow cone surrounding the entrance.

The valve slopes into the cavity of the bladder, or upwards in fig. 18. It is attached on all sides to the bladder, excepting by its posterior margin, or the lower one in fig. 19, which is free, and forms one side of the slit-like orifice leading into the bladder. This margin is sharp, thin, and smooth, and rests on the edge of a rim or collar, which dips deeply into the

bladder, as shown in the longitudinal section (fig. 20) of the collar and valve; it is also shown at c, in fig. 18. The edge of the valve can thus open only inwards. As both the valve and collar dip into the bladder, a hollow or depression is here formed, at the base of which lies the slit-like orifice.

The valve is colourless, highly transparent, flexible and elastic. It is convex in a transverse direction, but has been drawn (fig. 19) in a flattened state, by which its apparent breadth is increased. It is formed,

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Longitudinal vertical section through the ventral portion of a bladder; showing valve and collar. v, valve; the whole projection above c forms the collar; b, bifid processes; 8, ventral surface of bladder.

according to Cohn, of two layers of small cells, which are continuous with the two layers of larger cells forming the walls of the bladder, of which it is evidently a prolongation. Two pairs of transparent pointed bristles, about as long as the valve itself, arise from near the free posterior margin (fig. 18), and point obliquely outwards in the direction of the antennæ. There are also on the surface of the valve numerous glands, as I will call them; for they have the power of absorption, though I doubt whether they ever secrete. They consist of three kinds, which

to a certain extent graduate into one another. Those situated round the anterior margin of the valve (upper margin in fig. 19) are very numerous and crowded together; they consist of an oblong head on a long pedicel. The pedicel itself is formed of an elongated cell, surmounted by a short one. a short one. The glands towards the free posterior margin are much larger, few in number, and almost spherical, having short footstalks; the head is formed by the confluence of two cells, the lower one answering to the short upper cell of the pedicel of the oblong glands. The glands of the third kind have transversely elongated heads, and are seated on very short footstalks; so that they stand parallel and close to the surface of the valve; they may be called the two-armed glands. The cells forming all these glands contain a nucleus, and are lined by a thin layer of more or less granular protoplasm, the primordial utricle of Mohl. They are filled with fluid, which must hold much matter in solution, judging from the quantity coagulated after they have been long immersed in alcohol or ether. The depression in which the valve lies is also lined with innumerable glands; those at the sides having oblong heads and elongated pedicels, exactly like the glands on the adjoining parts of the valve.

The collar (called the peristome by Cohn) is evidently formed, like the valve, by an inward projection of the walls of the bladder. The cells composing the outer surface, or that facing the valve, have rather thick walls, are of a brownish colour, minute, very numerous, and elongated; the lower ones being divided into two by vertical partitions. The whole presents a complex and elegant appearance. The cells forming the inner surface are continuous with those over the whole inner surface of the bladder. The space be

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