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The water, pumped from the well, ran through a long pipe with holes on both sides, from which each child received a pure, fresh stream-jugs and basins being unknown. After our toilet came breakfast, consisting of soup. Lessons began again at eight. At ten came an interval for rest, when any one who was hungry could get dried fruit and bread from Mrs. Krüsi. At noon there was an hour's recreation for bathing or prisoner's base on the grass behind the lake. At one o'clock dinner of soup, meat and vegetables. Lessons again from half-past one to half-past four. Then the afternoon meal; either of cheese, fruit, or bread-andbutter. Each could take his share away with him, and eat it where he liked during the play-hour, which lasted till six o'clock, and which was passed, when the weather was fine, either behind the lake or in the large garden adjoining the castle, where every child has his own little garden plot. From six to eight o'clock more lessons, and then supper, which was much the same as dinner. . . . The food, though not very delicately prepared, was plain, wholesome and abundant. . . .

"The pupils were allowed very considerable liberty. As the two doors of the castle were open all day, and there was no porter, they could go in and out at all hours as if they were at home, and they did not abuse this freedom. The lessons generally lasted ten hours a day. No one lesson was longer than an hour, and they were all followed by a short interval, during which the classes usually changed rooms. Some of the lessons consisted of gymnastic exercises, or some sort of manual work, such as cardboard work or gardening. The last hour of the day was a free hour, given up to what the pupils called their own work. They could do

anything they wished-draw, read geography, write letters, or arrange their note-books. . . .

“Pestalozzi's rooms were on the second floor of the north front. He often invited the masters there to take coffee with him, and not infrequently held receptions in the evening, to which some of the pupils were asked. . . . The end of the year was devoted to making New Year albums to send to parents, containing drawings, maps, mathematical problems, fragments of history, descriptions of natural objects, and literary compositions. On New Year's day . . . the pupils of each class decorated their room, transforming it into a woodland scene, with cottage, chapel, ruins, and sometimes a fountain, which was so arranged as to play when Pestalozzi came in. Fir-branches, ivy and moss were fetched in large quantities from the neighbouring forests, and transparencies, with emblems and inscriptions, were secretly prepared; for the decoration of each room was to be a surprise, not only to Pestalozzi, but to the pupils of the other classes. Songs were also sung in honour of Pestalozzi. The principal idea in most of the inscriptions was: 'In summer you take us to see nature: to-day we try to bring nature to see you'. Frequently, on this day, the pupils performed a dramatic piece, the subject generally being one of the great episodes from Swiss history of mediæval times. For these plays the actors made their own costumes and weapons from coloured paper and cardboard."

The following extracts from the diary of Mérian, of Basle, a pupil from 1806 to 1810, give a peep into the domestic life at the castle :

"12th Jan., 1808.-Pestalozzi's birthday festival. At the end of the day the richer pupils made a collection

amongst themselves for the poor of the town of Yverdon. Mrs. Pestalozzi and Mrs. Kuster took charge of the money, which amounted to four pounds.

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"30th Sept., 1809.-To-day is the fortieth anniversary of Father Pestalozzi's marriage. Great rejoicings; discourse by Niederer; beautiful songs sung, room decorated with garlands. Grand supper for three hundred people in five rooms. Afterwards dancing, opened by Mr. and Mrs. Pestalozzi alone, in the oldfashioned way."

The curriculum included ancient and modern languages, geography, natural history, physical science, mathematics, drawing, singing, history and religion. Not all of these were taught according to the reformed methods of Pestalozzi, but only geography, mathematics, spelling, perspective drawing and singing. Pestalozzi's Elementary Books were here used only for beginners, and the individual teachers were left to apply the principles to their own teaching so as to make their instruction more and more "mentally intuitive". Some of the courses which were thus worked out by the teachers themselves were published in the form of manuals on arithmetic, geometry and perspective drawing-by Krüsi, Ladomus, Ramsauer and others. One such manual was published in Dublin in 1821, and has this title-page: "Intuitive Mental Arithmetic, theoretical and practical, on the principles of H. Pestalozzi, by L. Du Puget, late a student and teacher, at his institute, at Yverdon, in Switzerland, and, at present, a master in the establishment at Abbeyleix, in Ireland". In the preface is this interesting paragraph: "It may be necessary to give the meaning of the word Intuition as used in this work. In order to fix the

attention of the children and to give them clear ideas of number, it has been found extremely useful to calculate with pebbles, beans, marbles, etc., and this has been termed the teaching of Intuition or the Intuitive method."

Certain books drawn up by Joseph Schmid (the mathematical teacher of the institute), and approved by Pestalozzi and his staff, are practically authorised and improved editions of the Elementary Books. These were intended to be aids for teachers, and included: (1) The Elements of Drawing; (2) The Elements of Form and Size, commonly called Geometry (in three parts); (3) The Elements of Number, forming the basis of Algebra; (4) The Elements of Algebra; and (5) Application of Number to Space, Time, Value and Ciphers. A book on similar lines, a Manual of Elementary Geography, was published by Henning (a biographer of Pestalozzi), one of the young men sent from Prussia to be trained under Pestalozzi. Pfeiffer and Nägeli, both teachers at the institute, drew up a series of exercises in singing, together with some simple tunes specially written for an educational course.

The results of the curriculum were necessarily bad. As Raumer says: "Most of the teachers of the institution might be regarded as so many separate and independent teachers, who had indeed received their first instruction there, but who had passed much too soon from learning to teaching, and wished to see how they could fight their way through. There was never any such thing as a real pedagogical lecture. Under such a course of training, it could not happen otherwise than that some of the teachers should strike into peculiar paths; of this Schmid gave an example. But it was

an equally necessary consequence that the usual characteristic of such teachers should make itself apparent: namely, a great want of self-knowledge and of a proper modest estimate of their own labours.

"Man only learns to know himself in man.' I must know what others have done in my department of science, in order that I may assign the proper place and rank to my own labours. It is incredible how many of the mistaken views and practices of Pestalozzi and his teachers sprang from this source."

At the other extreme was the work of the subordinate teachers. These were supposed rigidly to follow the Elementary Books, neither subtracting from nor adding to them. Moreover, though they worked willingly and for the love of Pestalozzi, and the work's sake, they were sadly overworked. Ramsauer-who was first a boy under Pestalozzi at Burgdorf, and later one of his most loyal and devoted assistants-thus describes the teachers' work: "They were to help to bear every burden, every unpleasantness, every domestic care, and to be responsible for everything. Thus, for example, in their leisure hours (that is, when they had no lessons to give) they were required at one time to work some hours every day in the garden, at another to chop wood for the fire, and, for some time, even to light them in the morning, or transcribe, etc.; there were some years in which no one of us was found in bed after three o'clock in the morning; and we had to work, summer and winter, from three in the morning till six in the evening." Ramsauer's own time-table shows that he was almost wholly occupied with official duties from two or three o'clock in the morning till nine in the evening.

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