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play, the early attention of mothers must be directed to a subject which is generally considered to require neither much thought nor experience, and, therefore, is generally neglected. I mean the physical education of children. Who has not a few general sentences at hand, which he will be ready to quote, but perhaps not to practise, on the management of children? . . .

"The revival of gymnastics is, in my opinion, the most important step that has been taken in this direction. The great merit of the gymnastic art is not the facility with which certain exercises are performed, or the ability which they may give for certain exertions that require much energy and dexterity; though an attainment of that sort is by no means to be despised. But the greatest advantage resulting from a practice of such exercises, is the natural progression which has to be observed in the arrangement of them: beginning with those which, while they are easy in themselves, lead, as preparatory exercises, to others which are more complicated and more difficult. There is not, perhaps, any art in which it may be so clearly shown, that powers which appeared to be wanting, are to be developed by no other means than practice alone. When ability is wanting altogether I know that it cannot be imparted by any system of education. But I have been taught by experience to believe that cases in which talents of any kind are absolutely wanting are very few. In most cases I have had the satisfaction to find that a faculty which had been given up as hopeless, instead of being helped to develop had been hindered and obstructed in its activity by a variety of exercises which tended to confuse the learner or deter him from further exertion. "And here I would attend to a prejudice which is

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very common concerning gymnastics: it is frequently said that they may be very good for those who are strong enough; but that those who are of a weak constitution would be altogether unequal to, and even endangered by, the practice of gymnastics. Now I will venture to say that this rests merely upon a misunderstanding of the first principles of gymnastics: that exercises must not only vary according to the strength of individuals, but that they should be, and indeed have been, devised for those also who were actually suffering. I have consulted the authority of the first physicians, who declared that, in cases which had come under their personal observation, individuals affected with pulmonary complaints-if these had not already gone too far-had been materially relieved and benefited by a constant practice of the few and simple exercises which the system, in such cases, proposes. . . . Exercises may be devised for every age, and for every degree of bodily strength, however reduced. . . .

"Physical exercises ought by no means to be confined to those exercises which now receive the name of gymnastics. By means of them strength and dexterity will be acquired in the use of the limbs in general; but particular exercises ought to be devised for the practice of all the senses. This idea may at first seem a superfluous refinement, or an unnecessary encumbrance of free development. We have acquired the full uses of our senses, it is true, without any special instruction of that sort but the question is not whether these exercises are indispensable, but whether, under many circumstances, they will not prove very useful.

"How many are there of us whose eyes would, without any assistance, judge correctly of a distance, or of the

proportion of the size of different objects? How many are there who distinguish and recognise the nice shades of colours, without actually comparing the one with the other; or whose ears will be alive to the slightest variation of sound? Those who are able to do such things with some degree of perfection, will be found to derive their facility either from a certain innate talent, or from constant and laborious practice. Now it is evident that there is a certain superiority in these attainments, which natural talent gives without any special exertion, and which instruction could never impart, though attended by the most diligent application. But if practice cannot do everything, at least it can do much ; and the earlier it is begun, the easier and the more perfect must be the success" (On Infants' Education).

True physical education is much more than a developing of muscle: it is a developing of mind. Not only does our very existence depend upon the proper exercise of our body, but the nurture of the intellectual powers, in the first instance, depends upon the activity and development of the physical powers. The inner unity of our nature depends upon, and demands, the harmonious and balanced development of body and mind. The mind would have little or nothing which would arouse its activities if it were not for the exercise of the senses and the general physical powers.

The direct aim so far as the physical powers themselves are concerned should be: (1) the development of strength, which can be secured through exercises which demand easy control of the limbs, and the overcoming of physical obstacles; and (2) the development of grace, which may be obtained through exercises which require regular and rhythmic movements.

The view of physical education which Pestalozzi held is evidently a very broad and comprehensive one. He sought to further normal development: to correct wrong and defective development: to train the special senses as well as the muscular system: to use gymnastics as a curative agent in cases of disease: to produce muscular power and skill: to afford pleasure and the development which comes from play: and to aid intellectual and moral development. With some of these points we shall deal further in a later chapter.



We now come to the most important and the most difficult part of our study: Pestalozzi's ideas on the intellectual basis of all education, and the education of the intellect. This is most important because it is the most fundamental part of his thought and work; and it is the most difficult because of the characteristics of his own mind and methods. However, we do but attempt to do something like what Niederer tried to do for him, during his lifetime; and what Pestalozzi himself exhorted his disciples to do: systematise (as best we can) the great thoughts which he gave out so profusely and so promiscuously.

With his usual frankness and modesty, Pestalozzi disclaims any pretension to have set forth a complete theory and art of education. He writes: "When I assert positively that a man's powers are all part of an organic whole, I do not in the least wish to suggest that I have thoroughly apprehended either this organism or its laws; and when I state that a rational method must be followed in teaching, I do not for a moment pretend that I have always followed such a method, or that I have worked out all the details of metho one". In one passage he likens himself to "the Egyptian who first fastened the shovel to the horns of an ox, and so taught it to do the work of the man who

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