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learns them ". All his school work centred round the teaching of the mother-tongue, through which he taught grammar (through lessons on things), logic, ideas and literature. He set out his system in the Educative Course in the Mother Tongue. Girard, like Pestalozzi, was one of the educational reformers.

There was also Emmanuel de Fellenberg (1775-1846), a man of noble birth and exalted character, who, after holding high public offices and mixing much with the people and their rulers, became convinced-through reading Pestalozzi's Leonard and Gertrude that only by improvement in early education could the character of a people be made such that national greatness could be secured. He thereupon consecrated himself and his fortune to education; being then thirty-one years of age. His first step was to undertake the education of his own children, with a few boys from abroad, at his own house, on his estate at Hofwyl. Gradually he increased the number of pupils; but only by twos and threes so that the general working should not be much disturbed. These pupils were all of the patrician class. Two years later, 1807, he set up a "Poor School" or Agricultural Institution" for destitute children. The farm-house was used as a school, and Vehrli, the son of a schoolmaster of Thurgovia, was specially trained by Fellenberg (in his own house) to take charge of the institution. The aim was to use agriculture as a means of moral training for the poor; and to make the institution thereby self-supporting. Vehrli left the table of Fellenberg to share the straw beds and vegetable diet of these poor scholars; to be their fellow labourer on the _farm; to join with them as a play-fellow in their games; and to be their teacher,





influenced it can be, in some measure, estimated when his life and work have been considered. But we shall understand each better in proportion as we know both.

It is worth while to note what was taking place in other countries, in educational matters, during Pestalozzi's lifetime. Bell (1753-1832), Lancaster (17781838), Robert Owen (1771-1858), Samuel Wilderspin (1792-1866) and Miss Edgeworth (1767-1849) were doing their work in Britain; Jacotot (1770-1840), Madame Necker de Saussure (1765-1841), Condorcet (1743-94) were working in France; and Basedow (1723-90), Oberlin (1740-1826) and Froebel (1782-1852) in Germany.

The thought and work of such reformers in education brought about the greatest possible changes in the schools. They may be said to have done for education what Bacon, Descartes, Locke and others did for philosophy: they changed its main purpose from a theological and religious one to an intellectual and rational. For the appeal to authority and tradition was substituted an appeal to science and experiment. Rabelais and Montaigne had done much to prepare the way for Rousseau; whilst Pestalozzi did more than any man before his time to put the best ideas into practical form. In all spheres of thought the principle of following Nature and `Reason was beginning to become predominant at this period, and it was applied, for the first time, to education. Men were freeing themselves from the bondage of verbalism and entering into the full freedom of realism, both in thought and action.

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