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melody to the sublime hymn of praise to God? I am incapable of supplying the want, alas! I can only call attention to it." There is something specially striking in such views in one who "could not even sing, though, when unusually excited or elated, would hum to himself snatches of poetry; not, however, with very much tune".

At Burgdorf M. Buss was the teacher of music. Ramsauer tells us that: "The thirty or forty children of both sexes in Pestalozzi's old school came from the town to the castle to take part in the singing. Buss made his pupils sing as they walked, two by two, holding each other's hand, up and down the big corridors of the castle. This was our greatest pleasure. Indeed singing was one of our chief sources of enjoyment in the institute. We sang everywhere-out of doors, during our walks, and, in the evening, in the court of the castle; and this collective singing contributed, in no small degree, to the harmony and good feeling which prevailed among us."

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De Guimps, in describing the "mountain excursions" from Yverdon, says: "We would sing gaily as we passed through the villages, where the peasants often gave us fruit. As soon as we got to the high mountain pastures under the pines we often assembled at some good point of view to sing the wild, simple Alpine melodies our masters loved to teach us. To-day, after more than sixty years, I can recall those songs as vividly as in those early days when I first sang them, and they still seem very beautiful to me.” In another place he tells us that the Christmas Eve festivities were "interspersed with joyous songs, in which the children always took the greatest pleasure. Indeed, singing played a great

part in Pestalozzi's institute, and was the joy of almost every one in the house. There was singing everywhere and always."

Dr. Biber speaks of "the cheerful songs with which the youthful choir of Pestalozzi's pupils saluted the rising sun, or the lovely breezes of returning spring

. the hymns of praise and thanksgiving, especially reserved for solemn occasions".

Two Swiss, Nägeli and Pfeiffer, rendered great assistance in this work by publishing some excellent collections of sweet and simple songs for children; and training the pupils in the institute on a definite and systematic plan. This was quite a new feature in education, at that time. The teaching was based upon a new musical notation which had been invented by Rousseau, in 1741. In this the movable Do is adopted, and the notes of the scale are indicted by the numbers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I. For the absolute pitch, as it is called, of the notes as shown on the staff the old syllable letter names were retained, viz., ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si; and C. D. E. F. G. A. B. In effect, it anticipated all the essential principles of the Tonic Sol-Fa method-indeed the Rev. John Curwen testified that he was deeply indebted to it for his system —and has been greatly extended and improved by M. Chevé. It is now much used in France, and is known as the Chevé method. It is also known and used in England.

The order of teaching was: (1) The first exercises were entirely given to the time value of the notes; the crotchet being the unit, of which the minim was the double, and so on for the longer notes: the quaver was the half, and so on for the shorter notes. The rests were taught in connection with the note whose place they

took. (2) Next the arrangement of notes in a bar: the different "times" (common, triple, etc.): subdivisions of the lengths of notes by dotting, binding and grouping. In this the pupil was led, by questioning, to the discovery of as much as possible. Both the first and second steps concern rhythm, and, therefore, all the exercises were on the same note, so that the pupil's attention might be entirely confined to the time element.

Next is taken (3) "melody," i.e., the ascending and descending succession of notes. All the early exercises are with notes of equal length; in order that the attention may be given wholly to the tune element. At this point the teacher is, by testing, to find out the vocal capabilities of the child. Then comes (4) a study of intervals, through the tetrachord, i.e., the succession of four notes separated by a tone between the first and second and the second and third, and a semitone between the third and fourth; which make up half an octave. These exercises are notated thus: I. 2. I .. 2. 3. 2 3. 4. 3 4. | 4. 3. 4 I.-in which the double dots (..) stand for a pause, and the perpendicular stroke for a longer pause. After various exercises on this interval-a second-there follow exercises on the third, e.g., 1. 2. 3. I. 3 .. 2. 3. 4. 2. 4. | 4. 3. 2. 4. 2. 3. 2. I. 3. I. etc.; and so on with the other intervals. When these have been mastered, the teacher is to sing the same or similar intervals, and ask the pupils to tell what he has sung. These exercises will train both. voice and ear.

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2. I. 2

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The above exercises are carried on by means of this diagram on the blackboard :

The teacher is to indicate with a pointer the various successions to be sung: the four notes being called I. 2. 3. 4.

The next step (5) consists in working with two tetrachords. In the first exercise the last note of the first tetrachord becomes the first note of the second. Next the second tetrachord is started one note higher than the last note of the first tetrachord, e.g.

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4.

: : : I. 2. 3. 4.

(b) 1. 2. 3. 4.

: : : : I. 2. 3. 4.

Now since the last interval in the tetrachord must be a semitone, it will be seen that these exercises give us, in connected form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7b and 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I.

Thus the learner is introduced to sharps and flats, and the scales. This will easily be seen if we use the ordinary letter names (absolute pitch), and extend the exercises.

(a) C. D. E. F.

F. G. A. Bb.

Bb C. D. Eb.

Eb F. G. Ab.

(b) C. D. E. F.

G. A. B. C.

D. E. F# G.

A. B. C D.

In connection with these exercises the staff is introduced. At first all the exercises are written with the C clef, because all the notes can be kept within the staff, and the beginner is thus less likely to get confused. Leger lines are introduced later on; and the chromatic scale is evolved through the above exercises. The pupils are thoroughly questioned on the differences between the diatonic and the chromatic scales, until the teacher is quite convinced that they have mastered them.

After this the pupil is to be taken through voice culture, harmony and composition. But as all this is beyond the elements, so far as young children are concerned, we need not even give an outline of it. Sufficient, it is hoped, has been said to give an idea of the general method.

Manual Work and Physical Training. Of this Pestalozzi says: "In endeavouring to impart to the child those practical abilities which every man stands in need of, we ought to follow essentially the same progress as in the communication of knowledge; beginning from an alphabet of abilities, if I may so express myself: that is to say, from the simplest practical exercises, which, being combined with each other, would serve to develop in the child a general fund of ability, to be applied to whatever purpose circumstances might render it necessary in after life.

"Such an alphabet, however, has not yet been found, and that from the obvious reason that it has not been sought for. I am not inclined to think that it would be very difficult to discover it, especially if the research were made with the same zeal with which even the trivial abilities connected with the operation of money-getting are attended to. If once discovered it would be of essential benefit to mankind. It ought to comprise the simplest performances of the bodily organs of action, such as striking, carrying, throwing, pushing, pulling, turning, twisting, swinging, etc. Whatever manipulations may occur in any calling may be reduced to some one or more of the simple actions and their combinations. The alphabet of abilities should therefore consist of a complete succession of them all, arranged in the order in which they follow each other

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