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wisdom, and prevents you turning aside from poverty and distress: enables you to resist error and falsehood: and teaches you to love the truth. Children! this it is that makes the coward a hero: the idler a worker; and causes us to respect the stranger, and go to the rescue of the outcast and fallen."

In a letter to Gessner, quoted by Krüsi in his preface to the work, Pestalozzi writes: "I hope to complete my reading lessons by a legacy to my pupils, in which, after my death, they will find, connected with the principal verbs in the language, and expressed in such a manner as to strike them as they struck me, a certain number of moral instructions, all drawn from my own experience ". Here are some examples:


"On thy breath hangs thy life, O man! When thou breathest wrath and vengeance, and convertest the pure air of heaven into poison within thy lungs, what else doest thou but hasten the day when thou shalt be breathless, and the oppressed and afflicted shall be delivered from the fury of thine anger?

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"Thinking leads man to knowledge. He may see and hear, and read and learn whatever he please, and as much as he please he will never know any of it, except that which he has thought over, that which by thinking he has made the property of his mind. Is it then saying too much, if I say, that man by thinking, only becomes truly man. Take away thought from man's life, and what remains?


"Hoping and waiting make many a fool. And are we, then, not to hope at all? How unhappy would man be without that beam of hope, which in suffering and sorrow sheds light through the darkness of his soul. But his hope must be intelligent. He must not hope where there is no hope. He must look at the past with a steady eye, in order to know what he may hope of the future."


"It is a misfortune if one man threaten another. Either he is corrupt who does it, or he who requires it.

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"All men fail, and manifold are their failings. Nothing is perfect under the sun. But, unless a man despise himself, he will not think lightly of any of his failings.

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"The best alms is that which enables the receiver to cease from begging.

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"Change, my child, change all that thou doest and performest, until thou have perfected it, and thou be fully satisfied with it. Change not thyself, however, like a weathercock with every wind; but change thyself so that thou mayest become better and nobler, and that all that thou doest may be ever more perfect and excellent. No such change will ever cause thee to repent."

While such a means of teaching morals has much

that is suggestive, and some points that are sound, it is to say the least-somewhat forced and fanciful. Here, as elsewhere, Pestalozzi has let his method run away with him.

One point urged by Pestalozzi is very striking and important, viz., that a mother must expect, sympathise with, and help towards her child's independence of herself. He says: "In the progress of time the child not only is daily exercising and strengthening its physical faculties, but it begins also to feel intellectually and morally independent. From observation and memory there is only one step to reflection. Though imperfect, yet this operation is frequently found among the early exercises of the infant mind. The powerful stimulus of inquisitiveness prompts to exertions, which, if successful, or encouraged by others, will lead to a habit of thought. . . The child, then, begins to judge for himself, not of things only, but also of men: he acquires an idea of character: he grows, more and more, morally independent” (On Infants' Education).



The School Atmosphere. The school is not to be a mere learning-shop, where it is the child's work to get through certain tasks, and the teacher's business to see that he does it. The school is to be the home, with a difference. There must be the loving relation of parent to child; and there must be, as far as possible, the same opportunities of using the ordinary actions and objects of daily life as means of development and instruction.

At the Burgdorf institution a visitor exclaimed: "Why, this is not a school: it is a family!" Pestalozzi said: "That is the highest praise you can give me. I have succeeded, thank God, in showing the world that there must be no gulf between the home and the school; and that the latter is only helpful to education in so far as it develops the feelings and virtues which give the charm and worth to family life.'

When Glülphi asks Gertrude, in Leonard and Gertrude, whether she thought it would be possible to introduce into a regular school the same methods that she followed at home with her own children, she replies: "I am not sure, although I am inclined to think that what is possible with ten children would be possible with forty. But it would be difficult to find a school

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An allegorical picture; Pestalozzi is in his room at the Castle, yet the Castle is in the scene through the window.

From a transparency in the possession of Miss Mayo.

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