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account. Krüsi, as a lad and when a young man, earned his living by travelling about the country buying and selling small wares. One summer day as he was crossing a mountain, carrying a heavy load of thread, he met M. Gruber, the State Treasurer, and this conversation took place :

"It's very hot, Hermann,'" said Krüsi.

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"As Hoerlin, the schoolmaster, is leaving Gais you might perhaps earn your living less laboriously. Would you not like to try for this post?'

"It is not simply a question of what I would like: a schoolmaster ought to have knowledge of matters of which I am wholly ignorant.'

“'You could easily learn, at your age, all that a schoolmaster there ought to know.'

"But where and how? I do not see any possibility of this.'

"If you have any inclination for it, the way can easily be found. Think about it, and do not delay.'

"Upon this he left me.

"I considered and reflected, but no light seemed to come to me. However I rapidly descended the mountain hardly feeling the weight of my load.

"My friend Sonderegger procured a single specimen of writing, done by a skilful penman of Altstätten, and I copied it over a hundred times. This was my only preparation. Nevertheless, I sent in my name, but with little hope of success.

"There were only two candidates. The chief test consisted in writing out the Lord's Prayer, which I did with all the care of which I was capable.

"I had carefully noticed that capitals were used here

and there, but as I was ignorant of the rule I had taken them for ornament. Accordingly I distributed mine in a symmetrical manner, with the result that some came in the very middle of words. middle of words. As a matter of fact neither

of us knew anything.

"When the examination was over, I was sent for and Captain Schæpfer announced to me that the examiners had found us both very weak; that my competitor could read the better, but that I was the better writer; that as I was only eighteen years old, while the other was forty, I should be better able to acquire the necessary knowledge; that, moreover, my room, being bigger than that of the other applicant, was more suitable for a schoolroom; and, in short, I was nominated to the vacant post." So Krüsi's room was cleared of some old furniture, and a hundred children were put into it. This was in 1793.

While at college Pestalozzi came under the teaching of men who exercised a great influence upon him, viz., Bodmer, the Professor of History, and Breitinger, the Professor of Greek and Hebrew; and he had as his contemporaries Lavater, Iselin, the Eschers and others whose names are connected with the national history of this period. Of the teaching he says: "Independence, freedom, beneficence, self-sacrifice and patriotism were the watchwords of our public education. But the means of attaining all this which was particularly commended to us-mental distinction-was left without solid and sufficient training of the practical ability which is its essential condition.

"We were taught, in a visionary manner, to seek for independence in an abstract acquaintance with truth, without being made to feel strongly what was essentially

necessary to the security both of our inward and of our outward domestic and civil independence. The tone of the instruction which we received led us, with much vivacity and many attractive representations, to be so short-sighted and inconsiderate as to set little value upon, and almost to despise, the external means of wealth, honour and consideration. This was carried to such an extent that we imagined, while we were yet in the condition of boys, that, by a superficial schoolacquaintance with the great civil life of Greece and Rome, we could eminently prepare ourselves for the little civil life in one of the Swiss cantons."

During his college course, and when only fifteen years of age, he joined a branch of the Helvetic Society, which had been started by Lavater, and had amongst its members such men as Schinz, Füssli and Escher. The aim of these young men was to begin immediate reforms in the territory of Zurich; and to support the downtrodden and poor in their demands for the extension of the rights of the people. The society met weekly, and chiefly occupied itself in debating Rousseau's political ideas. But they by no means confined themselves to talk. They founded a weekly journal called Der Erinnerer, in 1765, wherein they gave publicity to their views; and did not hesitate to attack, in the most frank and fearless manner, public abuses, dishonest and tyrannical officials, worthless ministers, and any person or practice which seemed to them to stand in need of reform.

Pestalozzi, then only nineteen years of age, wrote articles for this magazine. Amongst other ideas he expressed in this paper were the following: "A young man who plays such a small part in his country as I

do, has no right to criticise, or to suggest improvements; at least people tell me this nearly every day of my life. But at any rate I may be allowed to express my wishes . . . that no eminent man may think it beneath his dignity to work with untiring courage for the public good; that no one may look down with contempt on his fellow-creatures of inferior station, if they are really faithful and industrious men ... that someone may publish a little collection of the principles of education, sound and simple, so that the average townsman, or the average countryman, could understand them; and that some generous individuals would distribute this little book free of charge, or at the price of a half-penny, so that all the clergy both in town and country might circulate and recommend it; and finally, that all parents who read it, might act in accordance with such wise rules of Christian education." The ardent spirits who thus criticised their pastors and masters soon got into trouble. The paper was suppressed; one young theologian had to flee from Zurich; and Pestalozzi was arrested, with several others, and condemned to pay the costs of an action.

Of the actual influence of Rousseau's writings upon himself Pestalozzi says: "The moment Rousseau's Emile appeared, my visionary and highly speculative mind was enthusiastically seized by this visionary and highly speculative book. I compared the education which I enjoyed in the corner of my mother's parlour, and also in the school which I frequented, with what Rousseau demanded for the education of his Emilius. The home as well as the public education of the whole world, and of all ranks of society, appeared to me altogether as a crippled thing, which was to find a universal

remedy for its present pitiful condition in Rousseau's lofty ideas. The ideal system of liberty, also, to which Rousseau imparted fresh animation, increased in me the visionary desire for a more extended sphere of activity, in which I might promote the welfare and happiness of the people./ Juvenile ideas as to what it was necessary and possible to do in this respect in my native town. induced me to abandon the clerical profession, to which I had formerly leaned, and for which I had been destined, and caused the thought to spring up within me, that it might be possible, by the study of law, to find a career that would be likely to procure for me, sooner or later, the opportunity and means of exerting an active influence on the civil condition of my native town, and even of my native land." ||

One writer (Henning) says that Pestalozzi once told him that his heart was so filled, in his youth, with enthusiasm for patriotism and zeal for the rights of the oppressed, that he earnestly strove to think out any and every means of deliverance for the poor and downtrodden; and so desperate was he for something effectual to be done, that he might easily have become persuaded that the killing of despots was no murder. Fortunately he was content to try more sensible and successful methods.

No doubt his resolve to forego the ministry was, to some extent at least, due to the fact that on his appearance as a candidate he was unable to say the Lord's Prayer correctly, and broke down three times in his sermon. In his study of law he seems to have followed the characteristic bent of his mind and character, and was more concerned to learn of the principles and methods of good government than the way to win cases.

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