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2. His emphasis upon the study of things. 3. His standard of physical training.


1. His prime product of education : wisdom, in thought and action; not knowledge.

2. The practical errors in his theory of educational methods.


1. His method of Latin instruction.


1. His principles of education as identical with the best of to-day.

2. His recognition of the need for trained teachers.


1. His practical failure due to the characteristics of the man, not to faults in his principles of education.

2. Nine cardinal principles of didactics as gathered from his writings upon method.


1. The first to treat education in a scientific spirit.

2. Based educational method upon an understanding of the nature of the child.

3. Insisted upon the direct study of external Nature, and upon the learning of words only in connection with things.

4. Recognized education as the development of all the faculties of body and of mind.

5. Demanded the equal instruction of both sexes.

6. Taught that languages must be learned through practice, not by means of rules.

7. Made provision for education through the hand as well as through the eye and ear.


Pages 172 to 218.


1. Purpose and method of Saint Cyran's "Little Schools." 2. Actual results of English public-school influences as opposed to St. Cyran's theory.

3. Port-Royalists' restoration of the mother tongue as the subject-matter of elementary instruction.

4. Literature study as distinguished from grammar study of Latin and Greek.

5. Logic, or the act of thinking.

6. The principles set forth in the pedagogic writings of the Port-Royalists.


1. Francis Bacon: first great leader of the realists of those who sought to know the facts of Nature rather than the thoughts of man.


2. Charles Hoole : one of the pioneer educators of his century."

3. Dury and Petty: extending the doctrines of realism.

4. Milton: elevating the moral nature to the first place in his theory of a complete education.

Pages 219 to 238.


(See Painter's History, pp. 218-223.)

1. From the standpoints of reason he rejected the established methods.

2. His definition of knowledge.

3. Development of body and mind, and formation of right habits the true aim of education.

4. Locke's comparison of the child to white paper or wax.

5. The naturalistic school of educational thinkers.

6. Objections to classing Locke as a utilitarian.

Pages 239 to 289.


1. To be classed with the thinkers, not with the doers, in educational work.

2. The value of his destructive work.

3. His three kinds of education—from Nature, from men, from things.

4. The first essential in the work of education is to understand the mind of childhood.

5. Some characteristics of the mode of acting of the child's mind.

6. Evil of over-directing in both discipline and instruction.

7. Right and wrong views of the value of self-teaching.


1. His mode of thought and manner of life.

2. The theory outlined in his Elementary and in his Book of Method.

3. Interesting devices used at the Philanthropinum.

4. The training of the senses and acquirement of knowledge through the senses pre-eminent both in Rousseau's and in Basedow's theories.

Pages 290 to 383.


1. His personal characteristics as shown in his early life and in his farming venture.

2. His view of the nature and purpose of education.

3. The first experiment at Neuhof and its failure.

4. The orphanage at Stanz.

5. The experiences at Burgdorf.

6. The Institute at Yverdun.

7. The last success at Clindy.

8. Death of Pestalozzi at Neuhof.


1. The main object of the school not to teach but to develop.

2. The child first to be trained to love; moral education.

3. The child next to be trained to think; intellectual education.

4. The child also to be trained to work; physical education.

5. The self-activity of the pupil the real force in all true education.

Pages 384 to 413.


1. The best tendencies of educational thought embodied in Froebel's teachings.

2. Froebel imperfectly understood even by the most earnest students.

3. Influence of his own neglected youth upon his after consideration for children.

4. His communion with Nature in the Thuringian Forest. 5. His transfer from the study of architecture to the practice and study of education.

6. His association with Pestalozzi at Yverdun.

7. The influence of his military experience in showing him the value of discipline and united action.

8. His experiences in teaching prior to his first kindergarten.

9. The edict forbidding the establishment of schools based upon Froebel's principles.

10. His death at threescore years and ten.


II. To find in science the expression of the mind of God. 12. To view education as founded upon religion, and leading to unity with God.

13. To regard the educational process as a process of development.

14. To seek development, or evolution of power, in the exercise of those functions, in the use of those faculties, that it is desired to develop.

15. That the exercise productive of true development must be in harmony with the function or faculty to be developed, and proportioned to its present strength.

16. That to be most truly efficient the exercise must arise from and be sustained by the self-activity of the function or faculty to be developed.

17. That this self-activity must manifest itself not in receptive action or acquisition alone, but in expressive action or production.

18. Practically, that children should be busied with things that they can not only see but can handle and use in the making or representing of new things to express their growing ideas.

Pages 414 to 469.


1. Set pupils to learning by their own investigation and refrained from giving them direct instruction.

2. Asserted that all human beings are equally capable of learning.

3. Declared that every one can teach; and, moreover, can teach that which he does not know.

4. Has done great service by giving prominence to the principle that the mental faculties must be developed and trained by being put to actual work.

5. By his doctrine " All is in all," he gave prominence to the correlation of knowledge.

6. Made the thorough mastery of a single book and the retention of it all in the memory his basis of all further accumulation.

7. His methodology summarized Learn something, repeat it, reflect upon it, test all related facts by it.


1. The value in the views of one who comes to educational problems free from tradition and prejudice.

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