And if A has to B the same ratio which E has to F; and Book V. B to C, the same ratio that G has to H; and C to D, the same that K has to L; then by this definition, A is said to have to D the ratio compounded of ratios which are the same with the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L: And the same thing is to be understood when it is more briefly expressed by saying, A has to D the ratio compounded of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L. In like manner, the same things being supposed, if M has to N the same ratio which A has to D; then, for shortness sake, M is said to have to N, the ratio compounded of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L. XII. In proportionals, the antecedent terms are called homologous XIII. Permutando, or alternando, by permutation, or alternately. See N. This word is used when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the first has the same ratio to the third, which the second has to the fourth; or that the first is to the third, as the second to the fourth: As is shown in the 16th prop. of this 5th book. XIV. Invertendo by inversion; when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the second is to the first, as the fourth to the third. Prop. B. Book 5. XV. Componendo, by composition; when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the first, together with the second, is to the second, as the third, together with the fourth, is to the fourth. 18th Prop. Book 5. XVI . . Dividendo, by division; when there are four proportionals; and it is inferred, that the excess of the first above the second, is to the second, as the excess of the third above the fourth, is to the fourth. 17th Prop. Book 5. XVII. Convertendo, by conversion; when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the first is to its excess BOOK V. above the second, as the third to its excess above the fourth. Prop. E. Book 5. XVIII. Ex æquali (sc. distantia), or, ex æquo, from equality of distance; when there is any number of magnitudes more than two, and as many others, so that they are proportionals when taken two and two of each rank, and it is inferred, that the first is to the last of the first rank of magnitudes, as the first is to the last of the others: Of 'this there are the two following kinds, which arise from 'the different order in which the magnitudes are taken, 'two and two,' XIX. Ex æquali, from equality. This term is used simply by itself, when the first magnitude is to the second of the first rank, as the first to the second of the other rank; and as the second is to the third of the first rank, so is the second to the third of the other; and so on in order, and the inference is as mentioned in the preceding definition; whence this is called ordinate proportion. It is demonstrated in 22d Prop. Book 5. XX. Ex æquali in proportione perturbata seu inordinata, from equality in perturbate or disorderly proportion*. This term is used when the first magnitude is to the second of the first rank, as the last but one is to the last of the second rank; and as the second is to the third of the first rank, so is the last but two to the last but one of the se- cond rank; and as the third is to the fourth of the first rank, so is the third from the last to the last but two of the second rank, and so on in a cross order: And the inference is as in the 18th definition. It is demonstrated in the 23d Prop. of Book 5. AXIOMS. I. EQUIMULTIPLES of the same, or of equal magnitudes, are equal to one another. 4 Prop. lib. 2. Archimedis de sphæra et cylindro. II. Those magnitudes of which the same, or equal magnitudes, are equimultiples, are equal to one another. III. A multiple of a greater magnitude is greater than the same multiple of a less. IV. That magnitude of which a multiple is greater than the same multiple of another, is greater than that other magnitude. Book V. IF any number of magnitudes be equimultiples of as many, each of each; what multiple soever any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other. Let any number of magnitudes AB, CD be equimultiples of as many others E, F, each of each: whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple shall AB and CD together be of E and F together. Aj E Because AB is the same multiple of E that CD is of F, as many magnitudes as are in AB equal to E, so many are there in CD equal to F. Divide AB into magnitudes equal to E, viz. AG, GB; and CD into CH, HD equal each of them to F: The number therefore of the magnitudes CH, HD, shall G be equal to the number of the others AG, GB; And because AG is equal to E, and CH to F, B therefore AG and CH together are equal to a E and F together: For the same reason, because GB is equal to E, and HD to F; GB and HD together are equal to E and F together. Wherefore as many magnitudes as are in AB equal to E, so many are there in AB, CD together equal H to E and F together. Therefore, whatsoever multiple AB is of E, the same multiple is AB and CD together of E and F together. DI F Therefore, if any magnitudes, how many soever, be equimultiples of as many, each of each, whatsoever multiple any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes be of all the other: For the same a Ax. 2. 1. Book V. demonstration holds in any number of magnitudes, which was here applied to two.' Q. E.D. PROP. II. THEOR. IF the first magnitude be the same multiple of the second that the third is of the fourth, and the fifth the same multiple of the second that the sixth is of the fourth; then shall the first together with the fifth be the same multiple of the second, that the third together with the sixth is of the fourth. DI E Let AB the first, be the same multiple of C the second, that DE the third is of F the fourth; and BG the fifth, the same multiple A of C the second, that EH the sixth is of F the fourth: Then is AG, the first, together with the fifth, the same multiple of C the second, that. DH the third, together with the sixth, is of F the fourth. B G H F Because AB is the same multiple of C, that DE is of F; there are as many magnitudes in AB equal to C, as there are in DE equal to F: In like manner, as many as there are in BG equal to C, so many are there in EH equal to F: As many, then, as are in the whole AG equal to C, so many are there in the whole DH equal to F; therefore AG is the same multiple of C, that DH is of F; that is, AG the first and fifth together, is the same multiple of the second C, that DH the third and sixth together is of the fourth F. If, therefore, the first be the same multiple, &c. Q.E. D A D E B K G COR. 'From this it is plain, that, if any CL F BOOK V. PROP. III. THEOR. IF the first be the same multiple of the second, which the third is of the fourth; and if of the first and third there be taken equimultiples, these shall be equimultiples, the one of the second, and the other of the fourth. Let A the first, be the same multiple of B the second, that C the third is of D the fourth; and of A, C, let the equimultiples EF, GH be taken: Then EF is the same. multiple of B, that GH is of D. H Because EF is the same multiple of A, that GH is of C, there are as many magnitudes in EF equal to A, as are in GH equal to C: Let EF be divided into the magnitudes EK, KF, each equal to A, and GH into GL, LH, each equal to C: The number therefore of the magni- K tudes EK, KF, shall be equal to the number of E A B G C D |