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Book V.

Let A, B, C be three magnitudes, and D, E, F other three, which have the same ratio, taken two and two, but in a cross order, viz. as A is to B, so is E to F, and as B is to C, so is D to E. If A be greater than C, D shall be greater than F; and if equal, equal; and if less, less.

Because A is greater than C, and B is any ⚫ 8.5. other magnitude, A has to B a greater ratio a than C has to B: But as E to F, so is A to B: 13. 5. therefore E has to F a greater ratio than C to B: And because B is to C, as D to E, by inversion, C is to B, as E to D: And E was shown to have to F a greater ratio than C to D E F B; therefore E has to F a greater ratio than

Cor. 13. 5. E to CD; but the magnitude to which the same has a greater ratio than it has to another, is

10. 5. the lesser of the twod: F therefore is less than D; that is, D is greater than F.

Secondly, Let A be equal to C; D shall be equal to F. 7. 5. Because A and C are equal, A is to B, as C is to B: But A is to B, as E to F; and C is

to B, as E to D; wherefore E f11. 5. is to F, as E to Df; and 9. 5. therefore D is equal to F8, Next, Let A be less than C; D shall be less than F: for C is greater than A, and, as was shown, C is to B, as E to D, and in like manner B is to A,DE as F to E; therefore F is greater than D, by case first; and therefore, D is less than F. Therefore, if there be three, &c. Q. E.D.

B

F D

E F

PROP. XXII. THEOR.

See N. IF there be any number of magnitudes, and as many other, which, taken two and two in order, have the same ratio; the first shall have to the last of the first magnitudes the same ratio which the first of the others has to the last. N. B. This is usually cited by the words "ex æquali," or, ex æquo.

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First, Let there be three magnitudes A, B, C, and as Book V. many others D, E, F, which, taken two and two, have the same ratio: that is, such that A is to B as D to E; and as B is to C, so is E to F; A shall be to C, as D to F. Take of A and D any equimultiples whatever G and H; and of B and E any equimultiples whatever K and L; and of C and F any whatever M and N: Then because A is to B, as D to E, and that G, H are equimultiples of A, D, and K, LA equimultiples of B, E; as G is to K, so isa H to L: For the G K M same reason, K is to M, as L to N; and because there are three magnitudes G, K, M, and other three H, L, N, which, two and two, have the same ratio; if G be greater than M, H is greater than N; and if equal, equal; and if less, less b; and G, H, are

B C

DE F

HL N 4.5.

b 20.5.

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any equimultiples whatever of A, D, and M, N are any equimultiples whatever of C, F: Therefore, as A is to C, 5 Def. 5, so is D to F.

Next let there be four magnitudes, A, B, C, D, and other four E, F, G, H, which, two and two, have

the same ratio, viz. as A is to B, so is E to A.B. C.D. F; and as B to C, so F to G; and as C to E. F.G. H. D, so G to H: A shall be to D, as E to H.

Because A, B, C, are three magnitudes, and E, F, G, other three, which, taken two and two, have the same ratio; by the foregoing case, A is to C, as E to G: But C is to D, as G is to H; wherefore again, by the first case, A is to D, as E to H; and so on, whatever be the number of magnitudes. Therefore, if there be any number, &c. Q.Ë.D.

BOOK V.

PROP. XXIII. THEOR.

See N. IF there be any number of magnitudes, and as many others, which, taken two and two, in a cross order, have the same ratio; the first shall have to the last of the first magnitudes the same ratio which the first of the others has to the last. N.B. This is usually cited by the words "ex æquali in proportione perturbata;" or "ex æquo perturbato."

First, Let there be three magnitudes A, B, C, and other three, D, E, F, which, taken two and two, in a cross order, have the same ratio, that is, such that A is to B, as E to F; and as B is to C, so is D to E: A is to C, as D to F.

Take of A, B, D any equimultiples whatever G, H, K; and of C, E, F any equimultiples whatever L, M, N: And because G, H are equimultiples

of A, B, and that magnitudes

have the same ratio which their

15. 5. equimultiples havea: as A is to B, so is G to H: And for the

same reason, as E is to F, so is AB

B C

DEF

M to N: But as A is to B, so

KM N

is E to F; as therefore G is to G H L

b 11. 5. H, so is M to Nb. And because

as B is to C, so is D to E, and that H, K, are equimultiples of B, D, and L, M of C, E; as 4. 5. H is to L, so is K to M: And it has been shown that G is to H, as M to N: Then because there are three magnitudes G, H, L, and other three K, M, N, which have the same ratio taken

two and two in a cross order; if G be greater than L, K is 21. 5. greater than N: and if equal, equal; and if less, less d; and G, K are any equimultiples whatever of A, D; and L, N any whatever of C, F; as, therefore, A is to C, so is D to F.

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Next, let there be four magnitudes A, B, C, D, and Book V. other four E, F, G, H, which, taken two and A.B.C.D. two, in a cross order, have the same ratio, viz. E.F.G.H. A to B, as G to H; B to C, as F to G; and C to D, as E to F: A is to D, as E to H.

Because A, B, C, are three magnitudes, and F, G, H other three, which, taken two and two, in a cross order, have the same ratio; by the first case, A is to C, as E to H; but C is to D, as E is to F; wherefore again, by the first case, A is to D, as E to H: And so on, whatever be the number of magnitudes. Therefore, if there be any number, &c. Q. E. D.

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If the first has to the second the same ratio See N. which the third has to the fourth; and the fifth to the second, the same ratio which the sixth has to the fourth; the first and fifth together shall have to the second, the same ratio which the third and sixth together have to the fourth..

Let AB the first, have to C the second, the same ratio which DE the third has to F the fourth; and let BG the fifth have to C the second, the same ratio which EH the sixth, has to F the fourth;

GI

AG, the first and fifth together, shall have to C the second, the same ratio which DH, the third and sixth together, B has to F the fourth.

E

H

a 22. 5.

Because BG is to C, as EH to F; by inversion, C is to BG, as F to EH: And because, as AB is to C, so is DE to F: and as C to BG, so F to EH; ex æqualia, AB is to BG, as DE to EH: And because these magnitudes are proportionals, they shall likewise be proportionals when taken jointly; as therefore AG is to GB, so is DH' 18. 5. to HE: but as GB to C, so is HE to F. Therefore ex æqualia, as AG is to C, so is DH to F. Wherefore, if the first, &c. Q. E.D.

A CDF

COR. 1. If the same hypothesis be made as in the proposition, the excess of the first and fifth shall be to the second,

Book V. as the excess of the third and sixth to the fourth: The demonstration of this is the same with that of the proposition, if division be used instead of composition.

COR. 2. The proposition holds true of two ranks of magnitudes, whatever be their number, of which each of the first rank has to the second magnitude the same ratio that the corresponding one of the second rank has to a fourth magnitude; as is manifest,

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PROP. XXV. THEOR.

Ir four magnitudes of the same kind are proportionals, the greatest and least of them together are greater than the other two together.

Let the four magnitudes AB, CD, E, F be proportionals, viz. AB to CD, as E to F; and let AB be the greatest A.& 14.5. of them, and consequently F the least. AB, together with F, are greater than CD, together with E.

Take AG equal to E, and CH equal to F: Then because as AB is to CD, so is E to F, and that AG is equal to E, and CH equal to F, AB is to CD, as AG to CH. And because AB the whole, is to the whole CD, as AG is to CH, like-G

wise the remainder GB shall be to the remainder HD, as the whole AB is to the 19. 5. whole b CD: But AB is greater than A. 5. CD, therefore GB is greater than HD:

And because AG is equal to E, and CH
to F; AG and F together are equal to
CH and E together. If therefore to the

B

D

H

unequal magnitudes GB, HD, of which ACE F.
GB is the greater, there be added equal magnitudes, viz.
to GB the two AG and F, and CH and E to HD; AB and
F together are greater than CD and E. Therefore, if four
niagnitudes, &c. Q.E. D.

PROP. F. THEOR.

See N. RATIOS which are compounded of the same ratios, are the same with one another.

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