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THE races of mankind not Hamitic, Semitic, and IndoEuropean have been classed as Turanian, or Uro-Altaic; but this classification is so inadequate that it will doubtless. be modified as ethnology progresses. In the meantime, for the Eastern Hemisphere it may be accepted. Omitting the merged Accadians of the Mesopotamian basin of whom we have already spoken, we have to go north and east to follow the migrations of the Turanian races.

The Turanian, or Uro-Altaic, races (so called from the Siberian range of mountains of this name) comprise the Mongolians, Chinese, Manchus, Japanese, Turks, and Tartars, the European Finns, and the original stock of the Hungarians. Longer than other races they retained nomadic habits, and in some districts of the East still retain them. The inhabitants who occupied Chaldæa before the arrival of the Semites in that region were called Accadians; and to these we have referred in speaking of the Babylonian Semites who absorbed them.' The Turanians generally have a monosyllabic and agglutinative language, and have never exhibited a capacity for progress either in literature, arts, or science beyond a certain fixed point, except under post-christian influences. Their highest development is to be found, I have said,in China, where as a civilised power they have existed

The most recent explorations would point to the conclusion that the Turanian or Accadian civilisation itself also rested on a prior people. Dr. de Lacouperie connects closely the Accadians and Chinese.

for, certainly, 5,000 years; and what we have to say of the Turanians must be confined to this the highest specimen of their social organisation.

As the education organised among this remarkable people affords a curious contrast to that both of the Semitic races and of the Asiatic Indo-Germans, of whom we shall afterwards speak, it is quite worth our while to endeavour to enter into some detail. The Chinese educational development is indeed highly instructive both to the educational politician and the schoolmaster.



CHINA had a consciously organised scheme of education long before any other Asiatic or European people. Egyptian education existed from an earlier date, but it was never an organised system. The Chinese system is instructive as well as interesting, because it suggests many considerations as to the organisation of education by the State and also as to authoritative modes of testing ability and learning which bear very directly on European and American education at the present day.

The Chinese empire embraces, besides China proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. It is China proper and a portion of the Burmese peninsula, however, with which we have to do. The dependencies are in no way so advanced in civilisation as China-proper. This portion of the empire is itself 1,600 miles long and averages in breadth 1,100 miles. The population is variously estimated at from 300 to 400 millions. A.. remarkable evidence of its early civilisation is to be found in the Great Wall which was constructed in the third century before the Christian era and extends up hill and

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