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The Progymnasien are Gymnasien lacking some of the higher classes. They are usually found in the smaller towns, where few pupils remain after completing the Progymnasium. six years' course required for one year's voluntary service in the army. Those pupils who would naturally advance into the upper classes are sent to some neighboring town. Hence, as a rule, the Progymnasien have only the lower and middle classes, i.e., a six years' course.

Position of the
Gymnasium.

The Gymnasien are the classical preparatory schools for the universities. All roads to the learned professions and to the higher posts in the civil and military service lead out from these schools. Historically, they are the centre and strength of the German school system; and while schools of a different nature have been established with a view to modern economic needs, popular prejudice is so strong that only graduates of the Gymnasien are regarded as cultured. The classics may be a fetich, but for the German mind they have a charm too powerful to be easily broken. "The classical literature is, and will continue to be, the source of all our culture. It must remain, therefore, not only an indispensable, but by far the most important study in our higher schools." This thought, expressed a century ago by Frederick Gedike, the first Oberschulrat of Prussia, has been the guiding principle of the Gymnasien to the present time.

Numbers and
Attendance.

In 1897 there were in Germany 439 Gymnasien and 92 Progymnasien, of which 277 Gymnasien and 53 Progymnasien were in Prussia. Bavaria stands next with 40 Gymnasien, and Saxony and AlsaceLorraine each have 17; Würtemberg has 16 Gymnasien and 3 Progymnasien; Baden, 14 of the former and 2 of the latter. The other states of the empire have from 1 to 9 each. In 1895-96 the attendance at the Prussian Gymnasien was 76,078, and at the Progymnasien, 4,544, or about fifty-seven per cent. of the total number of pupils in the secondary schools.

2. The Prussian

"The aim of the Realgymnasien, as of the humanistic Gymnasien, is to give the youth a liberal education founded, however, especially on instruction in the modern languages, mathematics and the natural Realgymnasium. sciences." The class divisions and the general requirements are the same as in the Gymnasien, but the curriculum is somewhat different. English takes the place of Greek, and more time is devoted to French and the natural sciences. The Lehrplan of these schools in Prussia is as follows:

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Policy of the
Government.

In accordance with the recommendation of the King and of the Berlin Conference of December, 1890, the Prussian ministry has persistently sought to do away with the Realgymnasien. As a consequence, the attendance at these schools has decreased and some of them have adopted another curriculum. But even in Prussia, Realgymnasien still exist, and are likely to outlive the King who signed their death-warrant. Saxony has always stoutly defended the Realgymnasien, and, in fact, the southern states in general support them with greater liberality than does Prussia. This is evident in the following comparison of the number of week-hours allotted to the different subjects in the various states.

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Realgymnasium.

The Realgymnasium arose to supply an actual want in the German school system. Yet from the beginning tradition has retarded its progress, and whatever gains Position of have been made are the results of long and persistent struggle. Its curriculum is of especial interest to Americans, inasmuch as it more nearly corresponds to the course of study of the American high school. The likeness is even more striking when Greek is admitted as an elective, as is the case in some Realgymnasien of Alsace-Lorraine. The policy of retaining the Realgym

nasium, and the pedagogical principles involved, will be discussed in a subsequent chapter. It is sufficient to say at this point that graduates of the Realgymnasium are admitted to university courses in mathematics, the natural sciences and modern languages, and to all technological schools. They are, however, denied admission to the professions of law, medicine and theology, and to certain coveted positions in the civil service. The slight put upon this school, especially by the Prussian government and the medical fraternity, serves to retard its progress and hamper its useful

ness.

Numbers and
Attendance.

There are in Germany 128 Realgymnasien and 93 Realprogymnasien. Of the former there are 85 in Prussia, 10 in Saxony, 5 in Bavaria and 3 in Würtemberg; of the latter, Prussia claims 67 and Würtemberg 4. In each of the other states there are less than 10 of both kinds. In 1896 the Prussian Realgymnasien enrolled 24,534 pupils, the Realprogymnasien 6,465, making in all twenty-three per cent. of the total number of higher-school pupils in the kingdom.1

Higher schools in which the classical languages are not taught are called Realschulen. Their normal number of classes is six; the Oberrealschulen, however, have three extra classes. The term Höhere Bürgerschulen, as applied to approved higher schools, is fast falling into disuse; it properly belongs to a high-grade elementary school. The Realschulen aim to fit their students for more effectual and intelligent participation in the actual business affairs of life; hence they place particular emphasis on the modern languages and the natural sciences. Graduates of the Oberrealschulen are admitted to university courses in mathematics and the natural sciences, and may eventually become teachers of these branches in the secondary schools. On the whole, their social standing is about on a par with the graduates of the Realgymnasien ;

3. Prussian Realschulen.

1 Statistisches Jahrbuch der höheren Schulen, 1897-1898.

both are commonly looked upon as inferior to the classical student. It is the special policy of the Prussian ministry to multiply the number of these schools at the expense of both the Gymnasien and the Realgymnasien. Their students are prepared to follow practical lines of activity, and to them the nation looks for leaders in industrial pursuits.

The curriculum of the Prussian Oberrealschulen is as follows:

LEHRPLAN OF THE PRUSSIAN OBERREALSCHULEN.

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Numbers.

Prussia had, in 1896, 26 Oberrealschulen and 60 Realschulen Würtemberg had 6 Oberrealschulen, Baden had 3, Alsace-Lorraine had 3, and Oldenburg and Brandenburg each had 1; in the other states there were no schools of this kind. Bavaria had 46 Realschulen; Saxony, 23; Würtemberg, 9; Baden, 14; Hesse, 16; Alsace-Lorraine, 8; and all the remaining states, 22. This gives a total of 40 Oberrealschulen and 198 Realschulen in the empire.

The Lehrplan of the Oberrealschulen of Würtemberg for the last nine years of the course assigns to religion 19 weekhours; German, 28; French, 55; English, 18; history and geography, 28; mathematics, 83; natural history, 10; phys

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