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tone. Literalism of obedience is good, but enthusiastic service for the common good is better. Let us not then despise even what appears to be the minuteness of rules, while as authorities we should so throw ourselves into our work as to lead our students rather than to drive them. I have often been reminded of the sacred saying that the law is not made for the righteous man but for the lawless and disobedient. However small a college may be it is very difficult to find one without what is generally called the "fast set," and even when this set is not present as opposing good morals, we have another set who, if unrestrained, would subvert the chief end of a college. I mean those students who think that a college exists for the purpose of providing material for athletic contests of various kinds.

The difficulty of according a measure of self-government to students is the anxiety that is felt as to how the power would be used when there are possibly discordant and even turbulent elements. I think as a general rule we can trust the public opinion of the majority of the students to be on the right side, but we are not sure that the majority will assert itself, or like other majorities, that it will not be hood-winked, and misled by a few talkers or designing men. In the experience of some colleges which have tried selfgovernment for the pupils, through responsible officers chosen from amongst them, it has been found that the responsibility of that one who is chief of the executive was no bed of roses, but has been in many ways just as thankless as that of the average college dean. This shows how seriously and conscientiously the work of discipline has been carried on by the officials elected by the students themselves.

What strikes one sometimes in England is that there is somewhat too wide a contrast between the trust often exercised in the highest boys of a school in its Sixth Form by the head master on the one hand, and the comparative suspicion with which the university undergraduate is regarded by the university system of discipline. No doubt many of the university and college authorities are free from this feeling, but the system seems full of suspicion. Reverend masters of arts are sent out night after night after dark, accompanied by sleuth-hounds, in the shape of ex-professional runners, to hunt for offenders. Tennyson

speaks of one who "breath'd the Proctors' dogs." This is somewhat antiquated as a piece of college discipline but it is not yet extinct. No body of students devoid of an appreciation of the good name of their college, or devoid of personal self-respect, could carry on self-government in matters of conduct and morals. We must have a healthy public opinion, and a high regard for one's fellow-students is also necessary. I feel sure that the discipline of the college administered conscientiously by the students would put down such cowardly and senseless practices as the various degrees and forms of hazing; would render impossible such orgies as have sometimes brought discredit on venerable halls of learning, and would promote manliness and check vice.

The oneness of the body corporate, the feeling of mutual and permanent responsibility would be encouraged and developed. It would soon be felt that idleness was just as much out of place in a student as in a professor, in a college as in a factory, or as cowardice in an army. An idle student would be just as much frowned down by the body of the students, as an idle clerk whose neglect brings extra work upon his comrades. I believe if some of the elements of self-government were given to students and certain officials from amongst themselves, elected by themselves and endorsed by the Faculty were appointed, that such appointments would increase the sense of responsibility of the students. In a small residential college this can be done through the senior student acting in conjunction with other senior students. If any graduates are in residence, they will receive certain modified authority over undergraduates. Men of the third year where no graduates are found, having a certain authority in certain matters over those in lower years. Thus the seniors are constituted into a rude senate, and the authorities can in general rely on their cordial co-operation. There would thus be a graded authority of seniority in which all will in time have a share. Certain individuals will no doubt be officials, but the principle of grading has good results as a rule.

For large colleges with their members scattered over large cities, it is difficult, if not impossible, to carry out any such system; but in such a university as Glasgow, it has been found possible to establish a board of students who are elected with a view of making it easy for the students

to formulate their wishes, and the existence of such a board has proved helpful, and has prevented friction.

We do not for a moment suggest that the students should govern the college; but in the department of morals and conduct the students are not so immature as they confessedly are in learning. Hence, the sphere of governing themselves as regards morals and conduct, may well call out the students' best side and noblest powers. We do not want to ask their advice as to appointments, as it is said a Whig government once did in the matter of the appointment of Dr. Hampden to a regius professorship, when some one representing that government wrote to young Arthur Stanley, then scholar of Baloil, to ask him his opinion of Dr. Hampden and that of his compeers. I would not then delegate to the students any part of the government of the college as such, but I would welcome corporate action on the part of the students, which would develop the sense of moral and collective responsibility, whereby rice, idleness, disorder and meanness, would be discouraged, undermined and abolished by the voices and wills of the student-body. The collective conscience of the student-body is potentially very strong, and when it is roused it will make short work of blemishes in its own body corporate. The more the authorities believe in this corporate conscience and appeal to it and trust in it, the more hopefully and vividly will it be developed, and the more potent for good will it become. There must, of course, be a limit to this freedom, and in case of manifest malfeasance or toleration of evil, the authorities must interfere and provision must be made for this. Such provision for the recall of privileges, will be a strong motive on the part of the students for wholesome administration of self-governing rights accorded. Perhaps it would be well, besides the officials amongst the students, to have a joint board of professors and students on which possibly alumni might be represented which should be a kind of conciliatory board to which difficulties should be referred. On this board I would suggest that the nominations should not be confined to one body. Thus, why should not professors nominate some students as well as professors for such a board? and students might nominate some professors as well as some students. Some alumni might be selected by both professors and students jointly or separately. The feeling of ultimate union might thus be promoted.

Many influences tend to divide men. Let it be our aim and study to strive to unite them in families, in societies which include colleges, in civic communities, in provinces, in confederations, in giant empires, in the peace and goodwill of a regenerated world! Let us harmonize our loyalty and our freedom; is not order but the best mould for liberty, the best condition for the life of liberty? The gospel for mankind is not one of self-assertion either in collegiate or in civic communities; it is one of true self-respect and mutual aid. We need one another. We are members one of another. The authorities of a college will be found working for the students, not necessarily always reminding them that they are students, but showing true leadership. This work for the students will not only include the illumination of the mind but also the correction of mistakes and the occasional pruning of exuberances.

The students will be found working with the authorities, not against them, by following the lead given them in learning, in self-restraint, in self-sacrifice, in devotion and in industry. Under the influence of religion as the power that binds for and to good, the sense of duty, the sense of unity, they will co-operate towards a great and noble end.

Individual sense of duty will multiply into corporate conscience.

From my own personal conviction, I would not legislate on a pessimistic theory of the minimum of good on either side. I would assume that the good of the whole is aimed at by all. I would not allow my optimism to delude me. into credulity or my love of humanity to make me a slave to the opinion of numbers. I do not, in this paper, propose to formulate a system, or to decide the details of a scheme.

I believe that colleges, like all other human institutions, can only be successfully carried on in the spirit of true religion; under a sense of responsibility not only to the traditions of an institution, to the needs of a community, but also to the Divine Presence, which illuminates and ennobles human concerns.

The spirit of unselfishness, the spirit that recognizes the duty of the individual in the presence of its Divine Creator, in the presence of the Glorified Head of our race, full of natural powers and of supernatural grace, should pervade the minds and consciences of those in and those under authority. Religion is not a doctrine to debate upon, so much as a principle to permeate life.

The true discipline is that of the heart and of the will. The same Power which makes men and women good, will enable members of colleges to work for and promote the common good. Power must be blended with sympathy and well-wishing. Peace and good-will shall fuse the discordant human elements so that there shall be a great and resistless current of good work, of healthy recreation, of noble enthusiasm. There shall be the discipline of a tri

umphant host.

As in the corporate production of some great work of musical art, all the instruments and the voices must be in tune and time, and there must be accordant co-operation between the leader, the organist, the instruments and the voices. The combined result is that of many efforts and of much prolonged discipline; so it will be in the great work of education, and especially in the work of those institutions which are the crown of the educational edifice. And as it is amongst other summits, that the springs of the streams that water the land are found, so it is amongst them. Let the materials which form the crown of the arch be well ordered and well cemented every way. Let the waters which flow forth from the springs amongst these summits be pure and fertilizing.

Editorial Notes and Comments.

THIS is what the Educational Review has to say about the "vocation of the teacher." The most potential factor in the teacher is the social environment in which he is born. In a large measure, we are all the essence of this environment. The child has a capacity for something higher than absorbing and assimilation, and it is to develop this that the teacher is necessary. No business in which men can engage equals it in delicacy and significance to society. A teacher is a fellow-worker with the Creator. The responsibility of a teacher is enormous, as the work is done when the child's mind is in its most plastic state. If this is the end of education, we must have a select class to perform the functions. Nothing is more fatal to a teacher than mental stagnation. A teacher should possess an encyclopedic interest in everything, and an insatiable thirst for knowledge. He who has ceased to have this thirst has ceased to be a good teacher. The crown and glory of all

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