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'fear is more powerful than any other feeling; the evil spirits receive more homage than the good, the lower more than the higher, the local more than the more remote, the special more than the general.' There is nothing moral in the relations between men and such beings, since their favour or disfavour depends entirely on the gifts offered or withheld. The doctrine of immortality is, at this early stage, simply the doctrine of continuance, compensation for good or evil deeds being a late development and probably concurrent with a belief in a Supreme Spirit above all other spirits. Where this idea of compensation enters, we have the beginnings of the worship of a Being who takes note of moral conduct, though not necessarily himself moral according to man's notions. The next step is a God who is Himself an ethical Being with human relations.

We are not to depreciate the religion of a nation because we find animistic and fetichistic practices existing side by side. with a higher doctrine, for we have to remember that a conquering race may occupy a country with a religion higher than that of its first inhabitants, while yet the lower form of religion continues to operate-nay even may infect the conquerors.

Authorities: Encyclopædias (especially Encyc. Brit.), English, French, and German; Dr. Morrison's Dictionary; Doolittle's Social Life of the Chinese, 1866; Giles's Historic China; Meadows's China; Bishop Gray's China; Legge's Religions of China; Williams's Middle Kingdom; Martin's China, Political, Commercial, and Social, 1847; Ueber Schule-Unterricht und Erziehung bei den alten Chinesen, von Dr. J. H. Plath, 1868; Essai sur l'histoire de l'instruction publique en Chine, &c., par E. Biot, 1847; China, by G. Eug. Simon, 1887; Tiele's Outlines of the History of Ancient Religions; Dr. W. A. P. Martin's Han Lin Papers, London and New York, 1880; Society in China, by Professor Douglas, 1894. Book of Chinese Poetry (the Shi-King) translated by Mr. Romilly Allen, 1891. Chinese School-books. Many other books have been consulted.

Those who wish to read the Chinese sacred literature must, of course, betake themselves to Legge's monumental work entitled The Chinese Classics, in seven volumes, 1861.

Note. There are the remains of an old university at Peking, founded in the fourteenth century, but now practically deserted. This institution sells the lowest degree, thus giving a qualification to compete for the higher. Mr. Martin says that there is a formal' examination for the degree, and that prior to the holding of the examination numerous students fill the old halls. It is a great abuse,

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'IT was not only,' says Duncker (vol. iv.), 'in the lower valley of the Nile, on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, and along the coast and on the heights of Syria, that independent forms of intellectual and civic life grew up in the ancient world.' By the side of the early civilisations of Egypt, the Semitic races, and the Chinese, we find forms of culture developed among races very different in their nature and temperament. The Medo-Persian civilisation is much later, it is true, than the Egyptian or the Semitic, but the branch of the Aryan race which crossed into India may claim an antiquity for civilised forms of life second only to that of Egypt and Babylonia.

The common characteristic of the Egyptian and Semitic and Chinese religions, in so far as they touched the people, was their externalism. In some of the highest utterances of Egypt, it is true, we find ethical conceptions characterised by sanity and humanity, but these did not emanate from the acknowledged relation of man to God, but rather arose, I think, out of the doctrine of immortality. The externalism of the Jewish religion was far in advance. of that of other nations, because it was an externalism of moral acts, and not merely of ceremonies. The Semitic family generally have, it is true, through prophets and hymn-writers, admitted all who choose to follow them to great theologico-ethical ideas. But the popular religion of all these races was an external system; and, in the case of all save the Israelites, it was a superstition. The spiritual

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