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financial difficulties from which it has long suffered. But as, notwithstanding all this, the public is not yet able to appreciate the bearing of his labours, he concludes that their prejudices will have to be eradicated, not by words, but by action and by time. He then continues:

"The resolution of my grandson to continue my work, to dedicate his whole life to it, and to unite himself to my friend Schmidt by the closest ties, gives our undertaking, even from a financial point of view, as much solidity as we could desire.

"But what is still more important than financial soundness, and all other external means for forwarding our work, is that, by my new institution for forming masters and mistresses, I have succeeded in laying a sure foundation for the realization of the most important parts of my earlier undertakings, a statement which no one will doubt after seeing the results of the union of my two institutes, which has now lasted for more than eighteen months.

"The facts will show that the children of the two institutes joyfully work together, full of kindness, help and mutual attentions, each of them advancing according to his diligence and talents without either jealousy or humiliation. Yes, I venture to say, with the most profound conviction, that when rich and poor children live together in the same institution, under different regulations and conditions, they may often find in this very circumstance a most valuable means of moral development."

Pestalozzi then explains at length the advantages of his new organization. In the first place, his institute being more like a family than a school, the children enjoy all the advantages of home life, and become imbued with a sense of what is owing to parents and brothers and sisters; both boys and girls, too, learn something of the gentleness, modesty, and respect which should, in ordinary life, charac terize the relations between the sexes. In the second place, he speaks of the social advantages of his institute, and the wholesome influence they are likely to exercise in the future. Children of both rich and poor mix freely together, the

1 Soon after this Gottlieb married Schmidt's sister.

difference in tastes and habits, however, and in the positions they will some day be called upon to occupy being strictly kept in view; they receive the same education and the same elementary instruction, and profit equally from all the resources of the institute. In this way they learn to know and respect one another, and on going out into the world do much to weaken the prejudices which foster such dangerous antagonism between the different classes of Society.


Pestalozzi recognizes with regret that his magnificent ideal of social regeneration has not yet been realized in his own establishment, but the experience of the last year and a half leaves no doubt in his mind as to its possibility. also recognizes his own incapacity, but counts on Schmidt, who already bears the whole burden, to continue and complete his work. After once more speaking in terms of the highest praise of this valiant collaborator, whose full value he alone appreciates, he concludes by giving the conditions of admission, terms, etc., for the different classes of pupils.

But neither Pestalozzi's experiment, nor the pamphlet which gave such a favourable account of it, succeeded in convincing the public. The well-to-do parents, little inclined to believe in the value of such a mixed institution, removed their children without delay, and Pestalozzi once more found himself in a position of grave financial embarrassment.

The year 1821 was filled with Pestalozzi's, or rather Schmidt's disputes with the Yverdun Municipality; for, in spite of the great falling off in the number of the pupils, and in spite of the fact that most of those who remained were poor children, Pestalozzi actually allowed himself to be persuaded that the rooms were not comfortable enough, nd required considerable alteration. Accordingly, on the 12th of January, he wrote to the Municipality reproaching them with causing the decline of the institution by their neglect of the buildings, asking for repairs to the amount of nearly two hundred pounds, and threatening legal proceedings if they did not carry out their engagements.

On the 2nd of February the Municipality, which till now had always readily acceded to Pestalozzi's requests, replied that these recriminations and threats were in striking contrast with the friendliness of their previous relations, and that it could only attribute the tone of Pestalozzi's letter

to the secretary he had been pleased to employ. It expressed surprise that additional accommodation should be required when the number of pupils had so much diminished, and pointed out that the nature of the institute had been changed, on the one hand by the addition of the poor-school, and on the other by the attempt to adapt the internal arrangements to the luxurious habits and tastes of the many English who had come there, and who were dissatisfied with the simplicity of the life, a simplicity, however, which had formerly been accompanied by so much prosperity. In conclusion, the Municipality promised that a Commission should be appointed to confer with Pestalozzi, and see if some understanding could be arrived at.

On the 13th of February, Pestalozzi, in another letter, asks that the free use of the Castle to be granted after his death to persons named by him, shall be not for five years only but for twenty.

On the 24th, the Municipality suggests that the expense of the repairs shall be borne partly by Pestalozzi and partly by the town, and consents on these conditions to grant the free use of the Castle for at least fifteen years from 1821. In a further letter, on the 3rd of March, Pestalozzi refuses to bear any part of the expense of the repairs. The Municipality accordingly retracts its offer, and awaits the threatened proceedings.

Before very long these proceedings were really commenced, but only after the Municipality had made another fruitless effort to come to an amicable arrangement. On the 17th of August, and while the case was proceeding, a still further effort was made, the Municipality offering to pay Pestalozzi a hundred pounds on the condition that he would not ask for any more money for five years, and that after that time the expense of repairs should be divided equally between himself and the town, the town's share never to exceed fifteen pounds a year.

But this new proposal was also rejected, and the case went on till the 15th of November, when Pestalozzi withdrew. Even then, out of consideration for him, the municipality undertook to pay the costs, which amounted to nearly twenty pounds.

While Schmidt was thus compromising Pestalozzi's name by these miserable disputes, the old man, paying little

attention to administrative details, never ceased to work at the application of his principles to elementary instruction and the raising of the people.

On the 12th of January, 1822, his seventy-sixth birthday, he presented a child with a copy of Leonard and Gertrude, the gift being accompanied by the following letter:

แ "My dear Child!

"If I were not so near the grave, if I could hope to see with my own eyes your early development, I would not, in memory of my experiences and views, offer you this poor gift, but would joyfully devote all my remaining powers to awakening and developing yours.

"But my time is past, and so I can only give you this dead book, Leonard and Gertrude, to remind you of my life. May it, by its impression on you, lead you to the same wisdom, the same strength, and the same holiness in things human as in things Divine!

"My child, the world is full of evil; beware of its cunning devices, its enchantments and its gold; beware, above all, of your own weakness. Learn to know yourself. Examine and consider well what great powers God has given you, what goodness and holiness He has put in your heart; for it is here that you will find your first help against your flesh and against the world with its corruption. Pray God that none of His precious gifts be lost through your own fault. Bury none of your talents, like the worthless steward in the Gospel, but endeavour in all things to become perfect as your Father in heaven is perfect. Sanctify by faith and love these gifts of God, that they may become holy powers within you, devoted to the imitation of your Saviour and the service of God and man. For, my dear child, in developing that which is Divine within you, you must not neglect that which is human. Let your holiness go hand in hand with the manifold duties of your earthly life, guiding you, supporting you, and strengthening you at all times and in all places.


"Yverdun, the 12th of January, 1822; my birthday."

This letter shows that at seventy-six years of age Pesta lozzi had lost none of his activity of heart and mind

although the poor old man blindly allowed himself to be dragged into groundless law-suits and impossible undertakings. But it is also interesting for another reason. At this time the canton of Vaud was the scene of what has been called a religious revival. To profound convictions on many neglected points of Christian doctrine, the leaders of the movement joined a narrow party-spirit, the tendency of which was to place believers outside the conditions of ordinary life, to the very great detriment of both family and social relations. The letter shows us Pestalozzi, alarmed by this tendency, endeavouring to ward off the danger from a child in whom he is evidently deeply interested, the essential point of his exhortation being as to the necessity of not separating the Divine and human elements in our lives.

During this same year, 1822, Pestalozzi continued to work at the elementary teaching of language with the ardent zeal and obstinate perseverance that form one of his most remarkable characteristics. In this connection Miss Chavannes, in her biography of Pestalozzi, quotes an interesting passage from Professor Charles Monnard's article on him in the Encyclopedic Review:1

"The first thing to strike us, when we consider Pestalozzi's career as a whole, is the decision and boldness with which he had grasped, at the very outset, the central idea of all his subsequent labours, labours which were continued even upon his death-bed. As he thus began, as it were, with a conception of his completed system, his first steps betokened an assurance, and his first experiments a sincerity, an independence, and a boldness which could only be the outcome of genius. The astonishment of his contemporaries, their mockery, their criticism, their indifference even, nothing could daunt him. In his work, as in his writings, there is indeed development and progression, but the aim is always the same, and there is always the one dominant idea, the soul of his labours as of his life. A single fact will suffice to show the constancy with which he followed this idea, it might almost be said, his only idea. In the last years of his life, he endeavoured to apply his method to the study of

1 1836, p. 295.

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