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The Military

Ideal.

effort is being made to establish a professional code of honour, as in the army, in which the younger teachers are trained by the older ones. The policy of having a generous sprinkling of reserve officers in the teachers' ranks is decidedly helping to establish a norm. The ideal teacher of to-day is not that of twenty or thirty years ago. He is not the absent-minded, black-coated, seedy individual that once typified the scholar, but a wideawake man of the world. Of course, the gradual separation of the schools from clerical influence is largely responsible for this change; yet it is the military spirit that has set the ideal for the modern teacher. The man who stands before his class erect and stiff as a statue, buttoned to the chin and in faultless attire-this is the man who inspires German pupils with the highest respect, even though his speech in the classroom is as short, sharp and imperious as that of the parade field. In referring to my observations on this point, one of the most progressive inspectors of Prussia freely expressed himself as convinced that the military type of teacher was the coming one. He maintained, too, that the increased attention to gymnastics and field-sports was tending to strengthen the military spirit among the pupils. "For us there is no other way," he said; "we are and must remain a nation of soldiers. When we cease to be that we are nothing." It remains to be seen whether the military spirit will sufficiently penetrate the profession as to make it impossible for a master to shirk his duty; whether the best interests of all will be sacrificed to the indolence, indifference or inability of a few.

Salaries.

The salaries of teachers in the higher schools of Prussia vary, as has been said, according to rank and length of service. Directors of full nine-year schools in Berlin receive from $1,500 to $1,800 a year, and $375 for house rent if an apartment is not provided in the school building. The initial salary of directors of complete schools in cities of over 50,000 inhabitants is $1,275; after fifteen years of service the maximum, $1,800, is reached. The initial salary in smaller cities is $1,200. Directors of six years'

Directors.

Regular

Teachers.

schools begin in Berlin and other large cities with $1,275, and work up to $1,500; the smaller cities, the limits are $1,125 and $1,500. Regular teachers in state schools receive an initial salary of $675, which is increased $75 triennially until the maximum, $1,275, is reached, after twenty-four years of service. One-half of all the teachers in the complete schools and one-fourth of those in the incomplete schools may receive an additional allowance of $225 per year for distinguished services. The salaries of technical teachers, assistants and others of like grade range from $375 to $900. To these amounts should be added the annual allowances for house rent: directors, $150 to $250; regular teachers, $90 to $225; and others, $40 to $135-according to the size of the city in which the teacher must reside. City schools and those under private patronage may be permitted to pay larger salaries than the state allows, but in no case can they pay less.1

Special
Teachers.

The salaries of directors and teachers of higher schools are very low in comparison with the salaries paid to men of equal worth in American or British schools. It will

Income vs.
Expenses.

some on special And these men,

be seen that $2,000 is beyond the reach of the best men in the state schools, even after twenty years of service. A few city schools, and foundations, do approximate that amount. be it understood, are holding positions equivalent to the presidency of a high-grade American college or the headmastership of an English public school. The discrepancy is often explained on the theory that it costs correspondingly less to live in Germany. That living expenses are less in Germany than in America is true, but it is not because foods are cheaper there than here. The fact is, as everyone knows who has tried it, that it costs more to live in Germany than in America, if you live in the same way. Provisions of all kinds are more expensive; clothing and domestic service

1 The complete salary schedules of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wür temberg are given in Appendix.

alone are cheaper. The German family has learned the lesson of economy; the same economy, if practised in America, would yield still better results. The sole advantage which the German teacher has, as I see it, is in his tenure of office and pension. This may make good the difference or not, just as one looks at it.

It is no wonder that with such meagre income German teachers rarely travel beyond the fatherland. Leave of absence

Travelling
Stipends.

may be granted, but the teacher must bear the expense of a substitute. Prussia, however, expends yearly 5,000 marks in assisting teachers, especially of modern languages, to study abroad. The city of Berlin provides an annual fund of 6,000 marks for the same purpose, and a few other cities do almost as much. Special foundations exist, too, for the purpose of assisting classical teachers to a period of travel in Italy and Greece. These grants range, according to the circumstances, from 500 marks upwards. In case of illness, no deduction is made; the director will divide up the work among the other members of his staff. If, however, there are no signs of ultimate recovery, the teacher is ordered before an examining board for retirement.

Pensions.

Teachers of all grades in the civil service retiring after ten years of service-or earlier, if because of disabilities incurred in the discharge of their duties--receive a pension of 1 of their last year's salary. For each year of service beyond ten years, of the last year's salary is added, until, after thirty years, the maximum of 4 is reached. A teacher who has an income, from all official sources, of $1,600 will receive, therefore, a pension of $1,200 for the rest of his life. More than that, after his death his widow is entitled to one-third of his pension; and each child under eighteen years of age, to one-fifth as much as the mother.1

On the whole, it must be conceded that the German teacher is tolerably well provided for. His income is small; but in

'See Appendix for a summary of pension laws.

comparison with members of other learned professions, he is not far in the rear. He can live as his neighbours do, enjoy cultivated society, rear a large family, send his sons to the university, fit his daughters to be as cheerful, industrious and frugal as their mother, and be assured of a competency in his old age.

GENERAL REFERENCES:- Wiese, Das höhere Schulwesen in Preussen ; Wiese-Kübler, Verordnungen und Gesetze; Instruction für die Directoren an den höheren Unterrichtsanstalten der Provinz Brandenburg (and same for Lehrer and Ordinarien), Berlin, 1868; Bestimmungen über das Mädchenschulwesen, 31 Mai, 1894, Berlin, 1895; Wychgram, Handbuch des höheren Mädchenschulwesens, Leipsic, 1897; Encyclopedias of Schmid and Rein; Stätistisches Jahrbuch der höheren Schulen; Kunze, Kalendar für das höhere Schulwesen Preussens, Breslau, 1894; Centralblatt für die gesammte Unterrichts- Verwaltung in Preussen (official organ of the Prussian Education Department). See Bibliography, p. 455, Nos. 1h, 2, 4.

A Complex
Problem.

CHAPTER XX

TENDENCIES OF SCHOOL REFORM

THE German school system in its present form is the outcome of a long process of development, in which there has been continual adaptation of means to ends. The system of the future will be the result of an evolution in what is now at hand. The factors in this problem are so numerous, and their interrelations so complex, that it is almost presumptuous in a foreigner to suggest a possible solution. Nevertheless, there are certain tendencies so manifestly important that they deserve special mention. This chapter, therefore, is the projection of the historical introduction to this study into the present and future.

The pressing problems in German educational affairs are unmistakably those relating to the function of the higher

The Main Questions.

schools-questions of the end and means of secondary education, of state control and individual freedom. Of course, there are many less important questions; and it is characteristic of the German way of doing things to slight nothing because of its apparent insignificance. There are questions of methods of teaching, of internal organization and conduct of school work, of hygiene, of salaries and pensions, of the social rank and standing of teachers, of the professional training of teachers-all these and many more are constantly in the minds of German educators, as the flood of current literature clearly demonstrates. At intervals, these questions come into prominence, but with few exceptions the course of development is well

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