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tration, the superintendent as organizer, supervisor, and his relations to community interests, the teacher as organizer, schools for defectives, and delinquents, and school reports. In addition to these chapters, we have appendices of more or less interest on the evolution of school supervision, that of rural schools together with their consolidation, school revenues and their distribution, hygiene, special schools, plans for state, for elementary and for high schools.

A Liberal Education, with an appendix containing a list of 500 best books, by CHARLES WILLIAM SUPER. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, 1907. pp. 105.

This volume has no index and no headings to its twenty-eight chapters and it is difficult to find out what it is all about. It seems, however, to be a set of notes of a somewhat miscellaneous kind bearing upon education, in which the author has recorded his meditations, his reading on very many kinds of subjects. In an appendix he has given a list of 500 so-called best books.

Aspects of Child Life and Education, by G. STANLEY HALL and some of his pupils. Edited by Theodate L. Smith. Ginn & Company, Boston, 1907. pp. 326.

This volume is a reprint of the following papers: The Contents of Children's Minds, The Psychology of Daydreams, Curiosity and Interest, The Story of a Sand Pile, A Study of Dolls, The Collecting Instinct, The Psychology of Ownership, Fetichism in Children, Boy Life in a Massachusetts Country Town Forty Years Ago. These papers have been revised to date by references to digests of literature published since they first appeared, and each has been provided with à select bibliography.

Work with Boys. Street Boys' Clubs. Vol. VII, No. 3, July, 1907. Published by the Alliance of workers with boys, Fall River. pp. 149-243.

The symposium on boys' clubs, which is the chief feature of this number, brings together a great deal of interesting information. The boys' club has come to stay, and there are now so many types that a suitable club can be found for almost every class, location, or purpose. Chinese Life and Customs, by Paul CARUS. Illustrated by Chinese artists. The Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1907. pp. 114.

The writer here describes annual festivals, Chinese industries and foreign relations, Confucianism, ancestry worship, Taoism, Buddhism, childhood and education, betrothal and marriage, social customs and travel, sickness and death. The book contains two or three score of interesting illustrations.

Chinese Thought, an exposition of the main characteristic features of the Chinese world-conception, by DR. PAUL CARUS. Being a continuation of the author's essay "Chinese Philosophy." Illustrated. The Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1907. pp. 195. The author treats of the zodiacs of different nations, a throneless king and his empire, and the Chinese problem. It contains two or three score of interesting illustrations.

Official Report of the Nature-Study Exhibition and Conferences, held

in the Royal Botanic Society's Gardens, Regent's Park, London, July 23rd to August 5th, 1902. Blackie & Son, Ltd., London, 1903. pp. 307.

This book comes to us at a somewhat belated date, but its impor

tance justifies us in, at least, calling brief attention to it. The various aspects of the subject are treated by specialists, and on the whole it is sure to be a real help to teachers along this line.

The Cloakroom Thief and Other Stories About Schools, by C. W. BARDEEN. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, 1906. pp. 226.

Mr. Bardeen is mainly the novelist of the school teacher. Whatever else may be said of his short tales, they are extremely representative and typical of life in the school. It is with such things that the mind of especially the country teacher is principally occupied.

All About Johnny Jones, by CAROLYN VERHOEFF. Milton Bradley Company, Springfield, Mass., 1907. pp. 200.

This book is dedicated in loving memory to the beautiful life of one little child who died at the age of five in 1896. It was written to give pleasure to children and to help them realize the highest ideals of childhood. The moral is pointed, but not obtrusive. The author is a trained kindergartner and has the very high recommendation of a valuable introduction by Miss Patty Smith Hill, the most sagacious and sane of all our American kindergartners.

The Green Valley School, a pedagogic story, by C. W. G. HYDE. Northwestern School Supply Company, Minneapolis, 1907. pp.

186.

This seems to be an interesting pedagogic story of seventeen chapters based upon the reminiscences of a veteran teacher.

Report of Public Education of the First School District of Pennsylvania, Catalogue of the Pedagogical Library. Compiled by Lillian Ione MacDowell. Walther Printing House, Philadelphia. pp. 525.

This pedagogical library was founded in 1883, and an initial catalogue, which attained great popularity, was issued by Dr. James McAllister in 1887. This rather ponderous volume of 525 pages shows great growth in this library, which should be of value for all students in this field.

Randglossen eines Keltisten zum Schulstreik in Posen-Westpreusen und zur Ostmarkenfrage, von HEINRICH ZIMMER. Weidmann, Berlin, 1907. pp. 124.

The author first gives a résumé of Polish activity in Celtic lands, and the hostility of the English peoples thereto. He then discusses the relation of the Catholic church of the nineteenth century to the Celtic languages in Ireland and Brittany. In the fourth chapter, we are told what can be learned upon this subject from England, and in the last are presented new ideals for academic students of Germany. Second International Congress on School Hygiene. London, August

5th-10th, 1907. Preliminary Programme. London, 1906. pp. 71. This preliminary announcement of the International Congress of School Hygiene ought to attract very widespread attention and interest. It shows, at least, that the preliminary work of organizing has been admirably done and that those who attend will be likely to meet the chief authorities in every European land as well as in America who are interested in this subject. The congress will last six days, and from the partial programme here printed it is sure to be so attractive that we can say with great confidence that all Americans interested in any aspect of this subject ought to make it a point to be present.

Practical Health, by LEANDEr Edmund WHIPPLE. The Metaphysical Company, New York, 1907. pp. 316.

This is a book on mental health and describes thought action in health and in sickness and specific image treatment, then thought transformance generally with the folly of worry, the value of calmness, the usefulness of occult study, causative images, mental safeguards, the nature of disease, how to use the mind to secure self help and mental protection, the nervous nature of disease, emotion in sickness and in cure, self-control, health, purity of thought and the supremacy of mind.

Notes on the Care of Babies and Young Children, especially for the use of teachers, by BLANCHE TUCKER. With an introduction by Dr. Hope. Longmans, Green & Company, London, 1907. pp. 67. This booklet seeks to give simple practical truths for the benefit of mothers and of teachers alike. It treats of various kinds of foods, crying, vaccination, teething, and a score of diseases and many remedies. The author has taken pains to make connection with many of the standard directions issued by hygienic and other societies. Standard Selections, a collection and adaptation of superior productions from best authors for use in classroom and on the platform. Arranged and edited by Robert I. Fulton, Thomas C. Trueblood and Edwin P. Trueblood. Ginn & Company, Boston, Mass., 1907. pp. 510.

The object of this book is to provide, in addition to many standard and familiar selections, new material in poetry and oratory that has never before appeared in works of this class. The 200 pieces are divided into six classes, and cover a wide range of thought and emotion. It is hoped they may stimulate interest in the works of the authors. The volume is designed for use in high schools and colleges. Examining and Grading Grains, by T. LYTTLETON LYON and E. G. MONTGOMERY. Ginn & Company, 1907. pp. 101.

This is a unique and interesting book and is called a kind of laboratory manual for the study of field crops. Instead of grains, this edition includes grasses, millets, legumes for forage, and commercial grades of hay. The laboratory exercises are designed to give the student a drill in the study of the structure and quality of all the cereals, in identification, in seeds, of the common grasses, etc., and judging the quality of hay of these crops. Exercises are arranged for each cereal. The studies are according to the rules adopted by the Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners of grain markets. Methods in Teaching, being the Stockton Methods in elementary schools, by ROSA V. WINTERBURN. Including a chapter on nature study by Edward Hughes. Macmillan Company, New York, 1907. pp. 355.

The Stockton schools, it may be remembered, figured at both the St. Louis and the Berlin expositions. These methods are here explained and are certainly interesting and suggestive, but they seem to be far less unique than these writers suppose. It is rather refreshing after the long era of uniformitization to have local methods evolved. In connection with the geographical places, this is well calculated to give a wholesome stimulus to local pride and to offer differentiation. This ought to act as an efficient stimulus to superintendents and teachers, and bring meritorious work into wholesome prominence, but whether the Stockton methods are worthy of being the Mecca of teachers we may well have grave doubts.

Individual Training in Our Colleges, by CLARENCE F. Birdseye. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1907. PP. 434.

This volume is introduced with a few pages by the Commissioner of Education. Then follows a historical sketch of the ecclesiastical period in early American colleges when they were boarding schools and when theology dominated, with an account of politics, lotteries, poverty, salaries, methods of marking, examinations, vacations, studies, athletics, etc. Part second gives the age of university building, describing the German movement, the changes in this country after the Civil War, modifications of secondary schools and of entrance requirements, correspondence and other outside schools, and then dealing with present college conditions as to athletics, religion, relations of teachers and students, present evils, etc. Part third is devoted to the Greek letter fraternities. Part fourth is entitled their remedy. Here chapters are devoted to students' problems, waste, handicaps, duties of alumni, the present need of college-trained men, future calling, etc., together with an afterword advising young men about to enter college. The book is interesting and suggestive, and the author has made diligent use of authorities, and we should be very grateful for his contribution. The subject is, however, too large for any individual, and no one will agree with all that is said. Upon one general criticism some stress should be laid. The title of the book suggests that it is devoted to the newer methods of individual work with small groups in seminaries, etc., whereas this subject is barely touched upon.

Das Problem der Ehe, von Gabriele REUTER. E. Kantorowicz, Berlin. pp. 67.

This is one of the booklets becoming now too common, published with no intimation of its date or age and dealing with a delicate subject in a somewhat radical way. Opinions like these can only be judged from the point of view of the period in which they were written, and therefore we forbear to review these.

Eindrücke und Momentaufnahmen von einem deutschen Abgeordnete, TOGO und KAMERUN, von (Anon). Wilhelm Weicher, Leipzig, 1905. pp. III.

This volume, with its 37 full-page illustrations from the author's photographs, bears as its sub-title "Impressions of a Legislator." It is a kind of daybook describing the various places visited by the author; but, although he declares that he took this journey from a sense of his duties as a member of the Reichstag, he has almost nothing to say of a general nature concerning political or administrative questions, but is content to write in a descriptive way as a traveller.

Die Wissenschaft von Menschen, von FELIX GÜNTHER. Perthes, Gotha, 1907. pp. 193.

This book is designed as a contribution to the psychic life of Germany in the days of rationalism, with special reference to the development of German historical philosophy in the eighteenth century. Among the attractive chapters are those that treat of the general economic condition, the state of science, especially anthropology, paleontology, physiology and folklore. Very interesting is the author's presentation of the psychology of rationalism, especially touching the question of the influence of outer nature upon psychic life. The Educative Process, by William Chandler BAGLEY. Macmillan & Company, New York, 1907. pp. 358.

In discussing first the functioning of education, the writer seeks to

reduce it to its lowest terms as a supplement of heredity. The school controls environmental forces and the ethical end is social efficiency. The second part deals with the acquisition of experience which consists of reading meaning into sense impressions according to the usual Herbartian apperception theory, from the standpoint of which attention, interest and will are considered. Experience functions as habit and as judgment and its condensation results in concepts. Experience is organized by conceptual judgments and there are various factors of efficient recall. At this point one aspect of child study is very briefly but broadly considered. Experiences must be selected for educational purposes and formal must be distinguished from intrinsic value. The chief work of education is the development of ideals and types of experience. This brings us to the transmission of condensed experience and the technique of teaching. The work closes with several chapters devoted to typical forms of development and instruction, the inductive and the deductive lesson types, the study, recitation, drill, review, examination and hygiene.

Laboratory and Field Manual of Botany, by JOSEPH Y. BERGEN and BRADLEY M. DAVIS. Ginn & Company, Boston, 1907. pp. 257. This manual offers material for considerably more than a year's laboratory work. This is made necessary by the fact that instructors differ widely in their view as to what matter should be presented in an introductory course taught under a variety of conditions.

NOTE.

From Dr. Frantisek Čáda of Prague comes the account of a child study association at Prague, which is doing excellent work. The organizers of this association are men from the highest ranks of the educational world. Monthly conferences are held which are open to all who wish to attend, and a consultation hour four times a week is open to those who wish to avail themselves of it. The following programme will serve to give an idea of the character of the work which is being done by this association.

PROGRAMME OF THE OPEN CONFERENCES OF THE HUNGARIAN ASSOCIATION For Child StUDY, 1905-1906.

Nov. 11th. Causes of Speech Defects in Children,

Dr. Arthur Sarbo, Professor of Children's Nervous Diseases.

Dec 9th. Punishment of Children,

Prof. Martin Schmidt, M. D.

Causes of Nervousness in Children,

Dr. Heinrich Sedusedery.

Jan. 13th. Causes of Nervousness in the Family,

Dr. Paul Ranordlurg, Supervisor of the Psychological
Laboratory.

Feb. 10th. The Development of Speech in Certain Deaf Mute and
Blind Children,

March roth. Children's Interests,

Prof. Joseph Balussa, M. D.

Prof. Edmund Weszely, M. D.

Apr. 7th. The Development of the Self-consciousness of Children, Dr. Georg Körösy, Director of Gymnasium in Ders.

THEODATE L. SMITH.

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