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91. In moral development each individual faculty of the heart to be set in action and exercised, by arousing appropriate feelings and desires.

92. In physical development graduated gymnastic exercises to call into activity the various powers of the body.

93. Intellectual development to begin with sense-impression and to proceed by means of graded exercise. 94. The application of these principles of development in the several branches of study would constitute Pestalozzi's Elementary Method.


United States Commissioner of Education.

A New Volume.-No. LV.

Genetic Psychology for Teachers.

By CHARLES H. JUDD, Ph.D., Instructor in Psychology in Yale University. 12mo. Cloth, $1.20 net.

This book deals with the facts and principles of mental development. It takes up the special phase of psychology which is of most importance to teachers, for it traces the changes which are produced in mental life as a result of education in its various forms. It calls attention to many facts in the teacher's own mental life that illustrate and present to direct personal observation processes of development. This study of one's own mental development makes it possible to understand the nature of such development. Starting from this firm basis of selfstudy, the reader is carried forward to the less directly observable forms of development that appear in others. The essence of the argument is that "teacher-study" is the only true basis for child-study.

The book applies the principles of mental development directly to the problems of teaching, reading, writing, and the use of number. One of its unique features is that it takes up specifically, not in a vague, general way, but exhaustively and clearly, the practical problems that confront the individual teacher.





Psychological Foundations

of Education.

An Attempt to Show the Genesis of the Higher Faculties of the Mind. By W. T. HARRIS, A.M., LL.D., United States Commissioner of Education. Vol. 37. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50.


In offering this book to the educational public the author feels it necessary to explain its point of view. Psychology is too frequently only an inventory of certain so-called "faculties of the mind," such as the five senses, imagination, conception, reasoning, etc. And teachers have been offered such an inventory under the name of "educational psychology." It has been assumed that education has to do with 'cultivating the faculties." Perhaps the analogy of the body has been taken as valid for the soul, and, inasmuch as we can train this or that muscle, it is inferred that we can cultivate this or that faculty. The defect of this mode of view is that it leaves out of sight the genesis of the higher faculties from the lower ones. Muscles are not consecutive, the one growing out of another and taking its place, but they are co-ordinate and side by side in space, whereas in mind the higher faculties take the place of the lower faculties and in some sort absorb them. Conception, instead of existing side by side with perception, like the wheels of a clock, contains the latter in a more complete form of activity. Senseperception, according to the definition, should apprehend individual things, and conception should take note of classes or species. But conception really transforms perception into a seeing of each object as a member of a class, so that the line between perception and conception has vanished, and we cannot find in consciousness a mere perception of an individual object, but only that kind of perception which sees the object in its process of production. This indicates the point of view of this book. It is an attempt to show the psychological foundations of the more important educational factors in civilization and its schools. Special stress is laid on the evolution of the higher activities or faculties and on the method of it.


Dickens as an Educator.

By JAMES L. HUGHES, Inspector of Schools, Toronto.

Vol. 49. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50.

Adopted by the Indiana State Teachers' Reading Circle.

All teachers have read Dickens's novels with pleasure. Probably few, however, have thought of him as a great educational reformer. But Inspector Hughes demonstrates that such is his just title. U. S. Commissioner William T. Harris says of "Dickens as an Educator": "This book is sufficient to establish the claim for Dickens as an educational reformer. He has done more than any one else to secure for the child considerate treatment of his tender age. Dickens stands apart and alone as one of the most potent influences of social reform in the nineteenth century, and therefore deserves to be read and studied by all who have to do with schools, and by all parents everywhere in our day and generation." Professor Hughes asserts that "Dickens was the most profound exponent of the kindergarten and the most comprehensive student of childhood that England has yet produced." The book brings into connected form, under proper headings, the educational principles of this most sympathetic friend of children.

"Mr. James L. Hughes has just published a book that will rank as one of the finest appreciations of Dickens ever written."-Colorado School Journal.

"Mr. Hughes has brought together in an interesting and most effective manner the chief teachings of Dickens on educational subjects. His extracts make the reader feel again the reality of Dickens's descriptions and the power of the appeal that he made for a saner, kindlier, more inspiring pedagogy, and thus became, through his immense vogue, one of the chief instrumentalities working for the new education."—Wisconsin Journal of Education.


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