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INDEX

ADMINISTRATION, school, develop-

ment of central control, 86-92;
the imperial system of, 108, 191;
basis of Prussian school laws,
109; Prussian administrative sys-
tem, 111; department of educa-
tion, 112; provincial school-
boards, 113; examination com-
mission, 114; local school-boards,
116; merits of Prussian system,
119; in other states, 119; restric-
tions on private venture, 135; dif-
ficulties of, due to established
precedents, 141-143; founding of
new schools, 143 ff.; rules, regu-
lations and customs, 156-174;
examinations and privileges, 175–
193; in relation to student life,
194 ff.; in relation to school offi-
cers, 370-387; tendencies of
school reform, 388-405, 423-453;
merits and defects of German
secondary education, 406-422
Agricola, 20

Alcuin, 5, 9, 10

Allgemeine Landrecht, Prussia, 88,
109

Altenstein, 101, 102

Altona Reform School, 251, 400-
402, 440

Appointment, of minister of educa-

tion, 111; of provincial school

inspectors, 113; of state exami-
ners, 114; of local school-boards,
116; of teachers, 370 ff. See
Teachers

Architect, duties of supervising,

146
Arndt, 79, 91

Attendance, compulsory school,
151, 407

Auditorium of school building, 150;
used on public occasions, 195;
for religious exercises, 157, 164

BADEN, 98, 125, 128, 248, 468, 474
Basedow, 65

Bavaria, 98, 124, 126, 127, 128, 249,
471, 474

Benedictines, services to church
and school, 3

Berlin, Conference of 1890, 105,
390-398; schools and school ex-
penses, 154; University of,
founded, 93

Bible, and the Reformation, 28 ff.:
in German schools, 213
Boarding-schools, 196-212; clien-
tele of, 135

Boards, provincial school, organiza-
tion and duties of, 113; impor-
tance of, 119; control of profes-
sional training of teachers, 363
ff.; of appointment and promo-

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CALENDAR, Academic, 156

Charles the Great, first general
charter of education, 5; educa-
tional progress under, 8; the
palace school, 9

Chemistry, 330, 343 ff., 346. See
Sciences

Church, influence of, on education,

1, 16, 88, 406; attitude of, toward
city schools, 12, 15; toward com-
mon schools, 15; and the Refor-
mation, 23 ff.; development of a
territorial, in Germany, 36; and
state, 89; attendance, 164; and
religious instruction, 224
Cities, function of, in creating a
middle class, 11; rapid growth
of, in modern Germany, 142
City schools, rise of, 13; adminis-
tration of, 117; foundation of,
144; for girls, 129-132; selection
of teachers for, 371

Civic ideals of education, develop-
ment of, 76 ff.; as evidenced in
examination system, 175 ff.; in
system of privileges, 189; atti-
tude of the government, 389;
service of the state, 406-412; the
German point of view, 420
Civil service, in Prussia, 90; con-
ditions of admission to, 192, 469;

teachers members of, 852-354;
oath of office, 372

Class distinctions, evils of, 420
Class-master, 380; duties of, 381
Class rooms, specifications for and
dimensions of, 145, 146; lighting
of, 147; heating of, 148; venti-
lation of, 148; seating of, 149;
equipment of, 149. See School
Buildings

Classes, in Gymnasium, 122; in
Progymnasium, 124; in Real-
schulen, 127; in girls' Gymna-
sien, 132

Clergy, low condition of, in the time
of Charles the Great, 9; attitude
toward secular schools, 12; need
of trained, in Reformation, 28;
Luther's appeal for schools for,
31, 34; Landesschulen for, in
Saxony, 38; in Würtemberg, 41;
Jesuits, 47; and religious in-
struction, 224

Co-education, 129, 132. See Women
Columban, 1

Comenius, 58, 59, 291, 389
Compulsory school laws, 151, 407;
suggested by Luther, 30 ff. See
Schools

Conference, Berlin, of December,
1890, 105, 390-398
Conference of 1900, 427

Constitution of Prussia, 88, 100.
See Allgemeine Landrecht
Courses of study, in religion, 213
ff.; in German, 227 ff.; in Greek
and Latin, 245 ff.; in modern
languages, 266 ff.; in history
and geography, 291 ff.; in mathe-
matics, 312 ff.; in the natural sci-
ences, 329 ff. See Curriculum
Culture studies, employed by early
humanists, 17-19, 24, 35; at vari-

ance with aims of the reformers,
27 ff.; Sturm's position, 42-44;
influence of French ideals, 51,
54; of pietism and rationalism,
60; return to the Greeks, 71 ff.;
modern problems, 95
Curriculum, of the Prussian Gym-
nasium, 123; comparative table,
124; of Prussian Realgymna-
sium, 125; comparative table,
126; of Prussian Oberrealschule,
128; of Prussian Höhere Mäd-
chenschule, 131, 464

Lehrplan of 1816, 97; place
of Greek and Latin in, 247; of
French, 267; of history, 293;
of mathematics, 312; of sciences,
330

Lehrplan of 1837, 247; place
of Greek and Latin in, 247; of
French, 267; of mathematics, 312

Lehrplan of 1859, 104; prob-
lem of the Realgymnasium, 393-

399

Lehrplan of 1882, 248; place
of Greek and Latin in, 248; of
French, 268, 270; of mathemat-
ics, 312

Lehrplan of 1892, 248, 249;
place of Greek and Latin in, 248;
of French, 268; of other modern
languages, 289; of history, 294;
of mathematics, 312; of sciences,
330

Lehrplan of 1901, 464
Customs, rules, regulations and,
156-174

DEFECTIVE CHILDREN, administra-
tion of schools for, 113
Deventer, 20

Director, selection of, 376; instal-
lation of, 378; duties of, 378-

380, 382; salaries of, in Prussia
and other German States, 472
Disciplinary studies, 74. See Cult-
ure Studies

Discipline, 161-171, 211
Drinking customs, 165

EDUCATION, history of, in Germany,
1-107

- Elementary, in Middle Ages,
15; after the Reformation, 28 ff.;
in Würtemberg, 40; revival of,
under Humboldt, 92; adminis-
tration of, 113

Secondary, in Middle Ages,
2 ff.; church schools, 8; human-
istic schools, 25; protestant
schools, 37-44; schools for no-
bles, 71 ff.; Real-schools, 64; re-
cent reforms in, 86 ff.; present
tendencies in, 388-405; merits
and defects of, 406-422; admin-
istration of, in Prussia, 108-120;
higher schools of Prussia, 121-
137; foundation and maintenance
of higher schools, 138-155; rules,
regulations and customs of, 156-
174; examinations and privileges,
175-193; student life in higher
schools, 194-212; methods of in-
struction in, 213-351; profes-
sional training of teachers for,
352-369; appointment, promo-
tion and emoluments of teachers,
370-387

Higher, in Middle Ages, 13;
spread of humanism, 24; found-
ing of protestant universities, 36;
decadence of, 50-55; founding
of Halle, 61; work of Humboldt,
93; university influence on sec-
ondary education, 114, 355-361
406, 413-419

Einheitsschule, 399 ff.
Eisleben, 37

Elective studies, 65, 123, 266 ff.,
420, 449

English, instruction in, 266 ff.; con-
troversies about, 272, 449; gym-
nasial course of study in, 273, 274;
Real-school course of study in,
275-277; typical lessons, 278-282;
direct method, 283-288; training
of teachers of, 288, 289
Enlightenment, coincident with
Frederick the Great, 62; motives
of, 63; influence of, on educa-
tion, 63-75

Erasmus, 20, 21, 24
Ernesti, 73

Examinations, students' final, 88,
90, 96; subjects of final, in Gym-
nasium, 182; in other higher
schools, 185; in six-year schools,
186; in the mid-course, 187;
examining board, 181; privi-
leges attached to, 189-193; in
mathematics, 325; in sciences,

384

teachers', 97; organization
of commission, 114, 115, 356–358;
development of, 352-355; pur-
pose of, 356; subjects of, 357;
conduct of, 359-361; grade and
rank of certificates for, 357, 361,
362; in professional training,
363, 364, 368; of directors, 378;
results, 407, 410

FEUDALISM, influence of, on educa-
tion, 10

Fichte, 80, 84

Francke, 63-65, 329

Franckesche Stiftungen, 134, 368
Frankfort plan, of shorter courses,
136, 252, 399, 402; Lehrplan,

Gymnasium and Realgymna-
sium, 136, 438, 464
Frederick the Great, reforms of,
62, 87; on the study of French,
267; on the study of history, 291-
293; on the training of teachers,
352-354

French, instruction in, 266 ff.; his-

torical development of, 266-268;
controversies about, 272; gymna-
sial course of study in, 273, 274;
Real-school course of study in,
275-277; methods of teaching,
278; typical lessons, 282; direct
method, 283-288; training of
teachers for, 288, 289
Frick, 297, 298, 309, 368
Fries, 368

Fürstenschulen, 38, 39, 196-198

GEDIKE, 73, 74, 88, 124, 245, 246
Geography, 297; relation to history,
298; Jena course of study, 298 ff.;
methods of teaching, 299, 300 ff.;
correlation with other studies,
308; criticisms, 309–311
German, instruction in, 227-244;
aim of, 227; historical develop-
ment of, 229; Prussian course of
study in, 230, 235, 239; gram-
mar, 231, 236; literature, 228,
236, 238, 241; composition, 234,
236, 240; ideals and results of,
243

Gesner, 72, 97

Giessen, University seminar, 367
Girls, schools for, in Prussia, 129;
in Berlin, 155; in Hamburg, 133;
curriculum of, 131; Gymnasien
for, 132; problems of education
of, 416-420. See Women
Goethe, 71, 84, 101

Greek, in the Middle Ages, 9; the

revival of letters, 18, 20, 23, 25;
Luther's attitude toward, 32 ff.;
in protestant schools, 37-44; and
the new humanism, 70-75; later
development, 95 ff., 245-249; in
the curriculum, 98, 99, 101, 104,
450, 123, 124, 136, 137, 245 ff.;
instruction in, 245 ff.; methods
of teaching, 258; text-books, 264;
criticisms, 264

Grimma, 38, 98, 140, 144
Gymnasium, so-called since the
middle of the sixteenth century,
39: official designation, 96; ob-
ject of, 74, 122; original aim of,
138; some old foundations, 138-
140; Lehrplan of Prussian, 123,
464; comparative curricula of,
in Prussia, Bavaria, etc., 124,
468; function and position of,
124; teachers in, officers of the
state, 110; numbers of, and at-
tendance at, 125, 140; educa-
tional problem of, 397 ff. See
Altona, Frankfort, Civic Ideals,
Conference, Curriculum, Greek,
Latin, Realgymnasium

HALLE, the first modern university,
61; university seminar, 368
Hardenburg, 77, 78

Head-masters. See Directors

Hegel, 84, 100, 101

Hegius, 20, 23

Herbart, 99, 292, 302

Herder, 71, 84, 94, 95

Hesse, 128, 248, 468, 474
Higher Schools, definition of, 121;
aim of, 175 ff.; statistics of, in
Germany, 436. See Gymnasium,
Realgymnasium, Realschulen
History, instruction in, 201 ff.;
Comenius on, 291; historical de-

velopments of, 291; Frederick
the Great on the study of, 291,
293; subject-matter used in in-
struction, 294 ff.; Prussian course
of study in, 295; Jena course of
study in, 299 ff.; methods of
teaching, 300 ff.; correlation with
other subjects, 308; criticisms,
309-311

Holidays, 157. See Calendar
Home study, 158, 160, 315
Honours attached to the teaching
profession in Germany, 375
Humanism, in Germany in the fif-

teenth century, 20; rapid spread
of, 24, 25, 26; influence of, 44;
and Lutheranism, 34, 44; Sturm's
position, 42, 43; repression of,
by counter-Reformation, 47; by
French ideals, 51 ff.; by Thirty
Years' War, 52; by pietism, 59
ff.; revival of, 69-75; incorpo-
rated in school curricula, 95 ff.;
tendencies of school reform, 388-
405, 423-453

Humboldt, 89, 92-94, 101; on the
training of teachers, 354
Hygiene, school, 145-149, 159, 160,
408

IDEALISM, German, 83, 413
Imperial school commission, 191
Instruction. See Courses of Study,
Curriculum

JAEGER, 264, 396

Jena, University, founding of, 36;
Gymnasium, 302, 341; seminar,

367

Jesuits, 47 ff.; success of, 48, 49;
influence on German school sys-
tem, 49; evidences of the work
of, 139

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