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ter varies greatly, according to location, the finer spinning being done in New England.

Considering these facts the Weather Bureau, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, has been examining the humidity of the southern portions of the United States, where cotton manufacturing is being largely extended at present, to see how it compares with New England. The results are published in Bulletin No. 19, of the Weather Bureau, price fifteen cents.

From the comparison of reports from where records of humidity have been made, it is found that Woods Hole, Mass. is more constant as regards humidity than any other station. The greatest variations are at Augusta, Ga., Wilmington, N. C. and Mobile, Ala., in order mentioned. It would thus seem as if the quality of the spinning in these places would be inferior to that of New England.

The study of humidity in other parts of the world shows that climate has hardly been considered in the localization of manufacturing towns. "To cheaper accommodations, the lower wages of workmen, the proximity to rich coal fields and the advantages of water transportation, must be ascribed the great development of the industrial arts that has made Manchester (England) famous throughout the civilized world.”

"The town of Oldham, about 6 miles northeast of Manchester, at an elevation of 688 feet above the mean sea level, is one of the most important seats of cotton manufacture in the world. Its importance is largely due to the fact that it is on the edge of the Lancashire coal field, where the mineral is very easily obtained. The climate of Lancashire has no counterpart in the United States. The range of temperature is exceedingly small, the summers are cool, and there is little change from day to night. The rainfall is a little less than that of New England, but the number of rainy days is greater. The cloudiness is greater than in any portion of the United States, as is also the relative humidity." At Dacca, India, the average humidity is much lower than any part of England, and yet this place is famous for its muslins.

Though but very little importance has been consciously given to climatic control in the localization of cotton factories in the past, much more notice will be taken of this control in the future.

Either factories will be placed in localities favorable as to climate, or else artificial means will be used to insure fineness in weaving and spinning.

R. E. D.

California.-Across the State stretches, from Colorado river to the Pacific coast, a range of mountains. Its different portions bear different names, the eastern, highest portion, being known as San Bernardino; north of Los Angeles it is called Sierra Madre, while the western part is known as San Buenaventura. Its highest peak, Baldy, has an altitude of more than 12,000 feet. From this peak, near the middle of the range, the mountains diminish in height east and west, reaching the west coast with an altitude not greater than 3,000 or 4,000 feet. The Sierra Nevada and Coast ranges unite with these mountains at their southern extremities.

North of this range, near the coast, stretches the Coast ranges and the fertile valleys between them. Farther east is the San Joaquin valley, limited on the west by the Sierra Nevada. Still farther east, and forming the north base of the San Bernardino range is the Mojave desert, stretching between the Sierra and Colorado river. This approaches, perhaps, as nearly to an absolute desert as any area on the continent. It has an almost level surface, broken only by volcanic buttes and short, narrow ranges, and a soil ranging from hard, alkaline clay, to a loose, powdery consistency, and from coarse gravel to drifting sand. Its vegetation is strange, consisting of scattered bushes of various thorny species, cacti in great variety and yucca. Among these the yucca 30 feet in height, with a

is the most prominent, standing 20 to

straight stem and few branches, each tipped with its sheaf of bayonets.

The range has been greatly eroded by streams, so that it presents an infinite detail of canyons, gulches and spurs. Indeed, the broader features of the range are almost concealed in the infinite variety of detail. The great multiplication of details seems to be a result of want of forest cover to the range. Timbered mountains are commonly eroded into large, broad features, while bare mountains are eroded, as are these into fine details.

The stream canyons and gulches are short, with steep slopes to

the edge of the valley. Few of them carry water except in the winter, the rainy season, and then, for a time, they carry large volumes.

South of this range lies a valley sloping gently southward. Its western part is limited on the south by the Pacific ocean, its eastern part by the San Jacinto mountains. This valley is the garden of southern California. Near its western end is Los Angeles, near its eastern end San Bernardino, while between the two cities are numerous beautiful little towns, strung along the Southern Pacific and the Atchinson, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads. For fifty miles it is almost a continuous city, the towns being connected by orange orchards, vineyards and truck farms.

The climate of this valley is arid. Little rain falls upon it, and that little in the winter. The soil, however, is extremely fertile, and when irrigated becomes a veritable garden, while without irrigation it is a desert. Thus, one sees in close juxtaposition the widest contrasts; on one side of the road an almost tropical luxuriance of vegetation, on the other cacti and sterility.

This valley commences on the north with a somewhat steep southward slope, which gradually becomes more gentle, and finally rises a little as the base of the San Jacinto mountain is neared. Its northern slopes present very interesting and significant details. An examination of it on the ground, or on a good map, shows that at the mouth of every canyon issuing from the mountains the land is higher than it is elsewhere, the form of the elevation being that of a part of a cone, with the apex at the canyon's mouth and spreading southward. Upon this cone is commonly found the stream bed, most of the year a dry bed of sand. It may be found on the highest line of the cone or upon the side. It may be a single stream bed, but more commonly it is divided downward, as is the case with the lower Mississippi, and these bifurcations may unite, forming in some cases an intricate network of stream beds upon the cone. In some cases the stream bed is found on one side of the cone, as though it had slid off from its position of unstable equilibrium.

The succession of "alluvial cones," as they are called, is the most interesting topographic feature of the valley. These cones are being formed by deposition of detritus-sand, gravel and soil

brought down from the mountains by the stream when in flood. These streams, as was above stated, have steep courses in the mountains, and consequently flow with great velocity. On reaching the margin of the valley this velocity is suddenly checked, and, consequently, a large part of the detritus is dropped in the stream bed and on the banks. Having thus built up its bed above the neighboring country, the stream, having an unstable course, leaves it to take up a neighboring position. This bed in turn is built up and the stream abandons it for a new one.

In this way the stream builds up its alluvial cone, raising it when it flows upon its surface, widening it when flowing along its margin. The coarser detritus is, of course, dropped first, and is found at or near the mouth of the canyon, while the fine material is carried far down into the valley. At the mouth of the canyon are found great boulders weighing hundreds of pounds, which attest the enormous power of these streams when in flood.

Near the mountains these doposits of sand and gravel are of enormous thickness, and they form a great storehouse of water. In the wet season they are saturated from the streams, and they give the water to the hundreds of artesian wells which have been bored in this valley. Indeed, the water supply for a large part of the irrigation of this valley is derived from these wells.-Bull. Am. Geog. Soc., XXVIII., 4, 1896.



Prizes for School Work on Weather and Climate. struction in meteorology in our schools is at present in a rather unsatisfactory condition, owing partly to the lack of a text-book adapted for school use, and partly to the fact that many teachers have no very definite ideas regarding the use that can be made by the children of knowledge they may gain through such instructions. Anything that helps to systematize and give definite shape to such teaching is therefore to be welcomed. It is to be noted that a very definite step is this direction has been taken in New England. On the dissolution of the New England Meteorological Society, in 1896, a sum of about one hundred dollars was left in the hands of a committee, to be used" for some meteorological purpose," and the purpose to which it has been decided to devote the money is to give prizes for work on weather and climate done in any New England

public school below the high school. A circular recently issued by the committee states that there will be three annual prizes, of twelve, ten and eight dollars.

"The prizes will be awarded by judges, to be selected at a later date. Each competing school may submit the work of three pupils, selected by the teacher from the work of a single class. All papers and record books sent are to be wholly the work of the pupils whose names they bear; all records are to be the result of the pupils' own observation; the papers received will be taken to represent the best products of work done by an entire class-that is, all members of the class are to do work similar to that of the three pupils whose papers are forwarded to the committee. With the work of each pupil a paper should be sent stating the (1) name of pupil; (2) age, in years and months; (3) name of school and grade or class (counting first year in school as first grade, second year, second grade, etc.); (4) name of teacher; (5) town or city, and state. The committee does not desire to limit the work closely or to require uniformity. The work may be done as special study in weather and climate, or it may be part of a course in nature study or in geography. But the committee suggests the following topics as appropriate :


'(1) Observation and record of simple weather elements. "(2) Preparation of weather maps based on data supplied by the teacher.


(3) The use of weather maps and of local observations in simple weather predictions.

"(4) Special observations and study of the elements that control the climate of New England.

"The judges will make due allowance for the age of pupils and their school grade, and will award the prizes on the basis of quality of work in whatever subject the teacher may choose, bearing directly on weather and climate. Owing to the late date at which this circular is issued, work covering only the second half of the school year, 1896-'97, will be accepted in the first competition.

"The papers submitted should be received in Cambridge by July 10, 1897. Address:-Prof. W. M. Davis, Museum, Cambridge, Mass. Express charges or postage should be fully pre

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