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HISTORICAL SURVEY

OF

PRE-CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

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PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITUTES AND HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN THE UNIVERSITY
OF EDINBURGH; author oF 'INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION,' 'LANGUAGE

AND LINGUISTIC METHOD IN THE SCHOOL,' 'LIFE AND EDUCA-
TIONAL WRITINGS OF COMENIUS,' ETC.

SECOND EDITION, REVISED

LONGMA

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

91 AND 93 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

LONDON AND BOMBAY

COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

All rights reserved.

University Press :

JOHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.

PREFACE

THIS book is a historical survey, not a history. At the same time I believe that nothing essential to the understanding of pre-Christian education has been omitted.

In traversing so wide a field, I cannot expect to have escaped errors: I hope these are of a minor kind and that they will be pointed out. Certain opinions may be considered erroneous by some of the experts in the various departments of historical inquiry in which I have involved myself: but until experts are themselves at one, I may be allowed to form my own judgment.

The greatest difficulty that presented itself was the giving expression, within the limits of a few pages, to the religious and ethical attitude of the various nations of antiquity to life and its duties. Brief statements on so all-important a matter cannot fail to be inadequate, and this all the more because the gradual historical development of religious beliefs has, for our purposes, to be ignored.

My aim has been to seize the leading religious and social characteristics of pre-Christian societies as these were actually found operative in the life of the people of each nation taken. as a whole. For example, the purified and abstract religious

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