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mainly, is the most certain way of killing intellectual growth and development.

The educational function of a writer is to do for the readers what the wise teacher does for his pupils, i.e., give them the best materials, conditions and opportunities for self-activity and self-development. If this be done, the attitude and the aptitudes of the research. student will be fostered, and a scientific grasp result from a scientific method. In this way intelligent readers should obtain from a book with such a topic as this one, some idea of the evolution of educational systems; of the genetic theory of thought itself; and some sense of historical perspective-which will teach a proper modesty in estimating the progress of our own times. To realise how much of the present consists of the past, and how much more of truth and strength than of error and weakness there was in the great men of old, will reveal to us unexpected treasures of knowledge and inspiration.

So far as the present writer has, by selection, given a particular tone and colouring to his view of his hero, he has deliberately chosen to make it as appreciative as possible. He has sought to include everything concerning the man which, he believes, has done, and will do, good to the world at large; and rigorously to exclude all that is foreign to this purpose. He holds the view that all that is good should live after a man, and all that is not so should be decently buried with his bones

-except in so far as the pathologist of men and manners can make a proper and profitable use of it. In particular it is the educational good which it is desired to propound and perpetuate. Pestalozzi was, educationally, one of the world's greatest benefactors.

My special thanks are due to Miss Mayo, of Riverdale, Dorking, for her generous and valuable help in allowing me to make use of Dr. Mayo's literary remains; and for having copies made of the original pictures of which reproductions are given in this book. I am also indebted to Rev. Canon C. H. Mayo, of Long Burton Vicarage, Sherborne, for information gleaned from his Genealogical Account of the Mayo and Elton Families.

LEEDS, 27th July, 1908.





From a miniature given to Rev. C. Mayo, D.D., and now in
the possession of Miss Mayo.

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PESTALOZZI AT YVERDON. An allegorical picture; Pestalozzi is in his room at the Castle, yet the Castle is in the scene through the window

From a transparency in the possession of Miss Mayo.





From MS. in the possession of Miss Mayo.



GIVEN a certain native genius of mind and character, it is true of most of the world's great men that they are as much the product of their own and previous times as they are the reformers of their own age, and the formers of some of the elements of all subsequent ages. It is, therefore, necessary to know something of the spirit of the times in which a man lived if we are to know, fully and truly, what he was and what he did. It has been well said that a proverb is the wisdom of all ages wittily expressed-world wisdom crystallised by individual wit. In much the same way it is true to say that the wisdom and work of the world's heroes represent the wisdom and work of all men articulated and universalised by a great master-man. Not every one, however, can make proverbs, nor can every one discover and reveal foundation principles. It needs at least a flash of genius for the one and a man of genius for the other. We can get only as we give; and he who sees the world's secrets is he who has the large vision and the great soul. All are called but few are chosen: all come under the influences, but only the finely tempered mind and man is in "sympathetic vibration" with them. From him rings out the new note of revelation; and happy is the world if it hearkens thereto,

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